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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is deposition? give an example.
deposition: the conversion of vapor directly to a solid, without passing through the liquid state.
-example: window frost
what is the dry adiabatic rate?
when gas travels upward, there are fewer gas molecules (less pressure) so it expands and cools adiabatically.
-applies only to unsaturated air
low clouds (height)
-2000 meters or -6500 feet
middle clouds (height)
2000-6000 meters or 6500 to 20,000 feet
-sheets or layers
-cover much of sky
-no distinct individual clouds
high clouds, characteristics
-cirrus(thin, delicate)
-cirrostratus(fluffy masses)
-cirrocumulus (flat layers)
-can warn of impending stormy weather.
-made up of ice crystals
what is needed in order for clouds to form?
tiny particles and dust called condensation nuclei
When does the air cool by the dry adiabatic rate and at what point does the air begin to cool by the wet adiabatic rate?
the air cools by the dry adiabatic rate until the condensation point, but above that point, the air cools by the wet adiabatic rate.
what is condensation? what must happen for this to occur? What is it's role in the atmosphere?
-process by which water vapor changes to a liquid state.
-the amount of energy released must equal the amount absorbed during evaporation.
-transfers great quantities of heat from tropical locations to polar locations.
what is sublimation? give an example.
the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without passing through a liquid state.
example: dry ice
give an example of an adiabatic temp change
pumping a bicycle tire, the pump becomes warmed. This is caused by the work done on air to compress it.
What is radiation? what are the restrictions on it? What is it's role in the atmosphere?
form of heat transfer by which solar energy reaches earth also known as electromagnetic spectrum.
does not need a medium
middle clouds, characteristics
-altocumulus(globular masses, large and dense)
-altostratus (white sheet, sun/moon = bright spot)
how are clouds classified?
on the basis of their form and height.
what happens when energy is used to compress air?
the motion of the gas molecules increase and therefore the temp begins to rise.
what is an adiabatic temperature change?
-temp change when air is compressed or (allowed to) expand(ed).
low clouds, characteristics
-stratus (fog-like layer that can produce precip)
-stratocumulus (stratus clouds with long rolls)
-nimbostratus (stratus who is the chief producer of rain)
what are the differences between the heating of land and of water?
Land: heats more rapidly than water and cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures than water. (specific heat is greater for water, water is transparent, water mixes the heat, and more evaporation from water than land)
What makes the air saturated?
the steady increase in vapor pressure in the air above forces more and more of the molecules to return to a/the liquid. Eventually the number of vapor molecules returning to the surface will balance the number leaving, and the air is said to be saturated.
what is saturation? What is vapor pressure?
the max possible quantity of water vapor that the air can hold at any given temp. and pressure.
-vapor pressure: the part of the total atmospheric pressure that can be attributed to the water vapor content.
What is conduction? what are the restrictions on it? what is it's role in the atmosphere?
the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity- heat transfered by collision of molecules.
Only certain substances are good conductors.
important only between the Earth's surface and the air directly in contact with the surface.
what is convection? what are the restrictions on it? what is it's role in the atmosphere?
the transfer of heat by mass movement or circulation within a substance
can only occur in fluids
responsible for redistribution of heat between hot and equatorial regions and the frigid poles.
-can occur as patches or sheets
-feathery appearance
what is latent heat? give an example
heat energy that is not associated with a temp. change-add heat to a container of ice water. Although heat is continually being added, the temp remains the same until all the ice is melted.
how can saturation be prevented?
if more heat is added to the container, the temp of the water will increase, and more water will evaporate before a balance is reached.
What is the difference between the leeward and windward locations?
leeward: experiences continental temps b/c wind does not carry the ocean's influence onto the shore
windward: experiences the full influence of the ocean- cool summers and mild winters
what's a low? what's a high?
low: cyclone, center of low pressure
-blow inward an counterclockwise around a low in N.H.
high:anticyclone, center of high pressure
-blow outward and clockwise around a high in N.H.
why is altitude considered a temperature control?
-the higher you go, the cooler it gets.
-usually snow up high, so it reflects the sun's rays and therefore is cooler.
what is relative humidity?
the ratio of the air's actual water vapor content to it's potential water vapor capacity at a given temp.
what is specific humidity?
a measure of the actual quantity of water vapor in a given mass of air.
(weight of water vapor/weight of chosen mass of air)
what are the two ways relative humidity can be changed?
1.if moisture is added or subtracted
2.different air temp.
how is dew/fog formed?
near Earth's surface heat is exchanged between the ground and the air above, but during the evening hours the surface radiates the heat away, and the surface and adjacent air cool rapidly, dew/fog is formed.
what is the generalized effect on temp concerning relative humidity?
when the water vapor content of air remains at a constant level, a decrease in air temp results in an increase in relative humidity, and an increase in temp. causes a decrease in relative humidity.
what is evaporation? What results in a cooling effect?
converting a liquid into a gas.
-during evaporation, it is the higher temp (faster moving) molecules that escape the surface and as a result, the average temp is reduced.
why is cloud cover and albedo considered a temperature control?
cloud have a high albedo (reflect most light)
during day with clouds, cooler b/c the clouds reflect the rays back into space before they hit earth.
during night with clouds it is warmer b/c the clouds hold the heat in near the Earth's surface.
what is the wet adiabatic rate?
if air rises high enough, it will cool sufficently to reach the dew point and can condense.
from the point along it's ascent, latent heat of condensation is released...cooling the air. Although the air will continue to cool after the condensation begins, the latent heat works against the adiabatic process and reduces the rate at which it cools.
high clouds (height)
above 6000 meters or 20,000 feet
-globular, individual masses
-flat base
-rising domes or towers
-cauliflower structure
what is a calorie?
the amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree C.