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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
energy
the ability to do work
visible light waves
parts of the electromagnetic energy that is radiated by the sun and observed with the human eye
electromagnetic energy
a type of energy that is radiated, or given off from all matter not at absolute zero
in what form does electromagnetic energy travel?
in the form of trannsverse waves
absolute zero
0 kelvin, or -273 degrees celcius
lowest possiblee temperature where particles of matter have no motion
how do transverse waves vibrate?
at right angles to the direction in which they are moving
how are different types of electromagnetic energy distinguished?
by their different wavelenghts
wavelength
the distance from one crest of a wave to the next crest
electromagnetic spectrum
any model that shows the types of electromagnetic energy in order of increasing wavelength
what is the only part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen by the human eye?
visible light
how is infrared energy felt?
its heating effects
how are most forms of electromagnetic enerfgy observed?
instruments
long-wave electromagnetic energy
electromagnetic energy with a wavelength longer than visible light
short-wave electromagnetic energy
electromagnetic energy with a wavelength shorter than visible light
is visible light short or long wave?
some scientists include visible light as a type of short wave radiation
what are the different forms of electromagnetic energy in order from the shortest wavelength to the longest wavelength?
gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, infrared, microwaves. radiowaves
what are the interactions between electromagnetic energy and an environment
waves can be refracted, reflected, scatterd, transmitted, or absorbed
refracted
bent in their passafe through materials of varying density so that the direction of the waves is changed
reflected
bounced off the material
scattered
refracted and/or reflected in various directions
transmitted
passed through the material
absorbed
taken into the material
how does the human eye distinguish the various wavelengths of visible light?
color
what is the order of visible light colors from shortest to longest wavelength?
violet, blue green, yellow, orange, red
what characteristics of a surface determine the amount of electromgnetic energy that can be absorbed?
texture and color
texture and color that absorbs most energy and reflect the least energy
dark and rough surfaces
the more effective a material is at absorbing electromagnetic energy........
the better it also is at radiating, or giving off, electromagnetic energy
the more effective a material is at radiating, or giving off, electromagnetic energy...........
the better it is as absorbing electromagnetic energy
what is the major source of energy for most of earth's processes?
radiation received from the sun
what is the second major source of energy for most of earth's processes?
radioactive decay within in the earth's interior
when electromagnetic energy travels from air into water, the waves are bent due to the density differences between the air and water. what is this bending callled?
refraction
which was does energy mmove?
from an region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
source
a region of high concentration of energy
sink
region of low concentration of energy
heat energy
energy transfer from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature
thermal energy
the energy of the motions of atoms and molecules
dynamic equilibrium
when a region loses and gains equal amounts of energy
if the dynamic equilibrium is between all forms of energy, then the temperature of the region or system will...
remain constant
what are the three ways in which heat is transfered?
1. conduction
2. convection
3. radiaton
when does heat stop moving from the souyrce to the sink?
when their energies are equal, establishing a dynamic equilibrium
conduction
the transfer of heat energy from atom to atom or molecule to molecule when vibrating atoms or molecules collide
in what phase is conduction most effective and why?
in solids, especially metals, because the atoms or molecules are closer together than in gases and liquids
when conducting the experiment with the hot and cold calorimeters, in what form in some energy lost through the uninsulated metal bar?
infrared radiation
convection
the transfer of heat by movement in fluids-gases and liquids-caused b differences in density within the fluids
density of warmer fluids
lower density
where do warmer portions go?
they rise above cooler portions
why do less dense fluids rise?
bc gravity pulls less on objects that are loser in density and pulls more on objects of high density. higher density portios of a fluid are pulled down and displace less sense objects, pushing them up
what is the result of gravitys affect of objects of different densities?
a convection current-a circulatorym motion, that transfers heat energy from one place to another
greenhouse gases`
carbon dioxide and water vapor
radiation
the method by which heat is transferred via electromagnetic waves
what medium transfers the transverse waves that carry electromagnetic energy?
no medium iss needed, this energy can radiate from its source across empty space
what phses can radiation occur in?
solids, liquids, and gases
radiation of the sun
method by which the sun's electromagnetic energy moves through space to other objects in the solar system
how does the electromagnetic energy of an object relate to its temperature
the higher an objects temperature, the more electromagnetic energy it gives off
how is transformations of energy occur?
friction
mechanical energy definition 1
all the energy of an object or system not related to the individual motions of atoms and molecules
mechanical energy
the total of potential and kinetic energy of an object or system
kinetic energy
the kind of energy an object in motion has
poyential energy
energy relatefd to position or phase "stored" energy
how does mass affect potential energy
more mass=more potential energy
describe kintetic and potential energy of a water on top of a waterfall
water at the top of a waterfall has potential energy because f its position relative to earths center. as the wter falls to a lower level, some of its potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy, resulting in an increase in speed
when electromagnetic energy is absorbed and reradiated, how does the wavelength change?
it is reradiated at a longer wavelength
why does this occur?
bc energy moves from regions of great to lower concentration, and the region of greater cncentration usually has a higher temperature and emits shorter wavelengths
temperature
a measure of average kinetic energy of the particles of a body of matter
theory of matter
the particles of every material are in continuous, random motion, and therefore have kinetic energy
calorie
the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of liquid wter by one degree Celcius
what is the type of energy that is transfered from hotter to colder objects?
heat energy
specific heat of a substance
the quantity of heat needed to raise the tempterature of one gram of any substance one degree Celcius
simpler terms: specific heat
the resistance a material presents to heating up and cooling off
what has the highest specific heat?
liquid water
how does the specific heat of a subsstance affect the rate at which is cools off and heats up?
the higher the spefiic heat, the slower is cools off and heats up
melting
the changing of a solid to a liquid
freezing/solidification
the changing of a liquid to a solid
crystallization
if solidification results in a solid with an ordered pattern of atoms
evaporation/vaporization
the changing of a liquid to a gas, or vapor
condensation
the changing of a gas, or vapor, to a liquid
sublimation
the changing of a gas directly to a solid, or from a solid firectly to a gas-without going through the liquid state
what happens when water changes state from a solid to a liquid to a gas?
it absorbs heat, molecular movement speeds up, and the tighly bound water molecules become less and less tightly bound
what happens when water changes state from a gas to a liquid to a solid?
water releases stored heat, molecular movements slow down, and molecules become more tightly bound
what must happen in order for a change of state from a solid to a lquid, or from a liquid to a gas, occur?
the substance must gain heat
what must happen in order for the change of state fromma gas to a liquid, or from a liquid to a solid, to occur?
the substance must lose stored heat
explain the loss and gain of heat and temperature changes etc. during phase changes
when a material is in one of the three state, its temperature rises as heat is added to it/drops if heat is removed. however, if the material is in the process of changing state, its temperature reamins the same as it is heated
give an example
during the change of state, the added heat energy is not increasing the kinetic energy of the atoms or the molecules, and therefore, the temperature does not change. the added heat energy is being converted to a kind of potential energy, or stored heat
during what phases is energy lost?
gas to liquid (condensation)
liquid to solid (solidification/freezing)
gas to a solid (sublimation to a solid)
during what phases is energy gained?
solid to a liquid (melting)
liquid to a gas (evaportation/vaporization)
solid to gas (sublimation to a gas)
when does melting occur?
0 degrees celcius
when does evaporation/vaporization occur?
100 degrees celcius
when does the temperatre remain constant?
while the phase is changing
why does the temperature remain constant?
bc the heat that is being added at those times is being changed to a stored heat (potential energy)
solar electromagnetic spectrium
the wide range of electromagnetic energy of various wavelegths that the sun radiates, or gives off
what does 0 degrees celcius equal in Kelvin/.
273 K
what are some of the wavelngths included in solar electromagnetic spectrum?
x-rays, ultraviolet rays, visible light, and infrared rays
of all the types of electromagnetic radiation from the sun, which is the one with the greatest intensity?
visible light
how is solar energy produced?
by nuclear fusion
nclera fusion
a process in which the nuclei of atoms are combined to form larger atomic nuclei-releasing great amounts of energy in the process
under what conditions do nuclear fusion have to occur?
very high temperatures and pressure
where does a small fraction of the energgy produced by nuclear fusion go?
it is radiated as electromagnetic energy and received byy earth, thus :fueling" most earh processes
explain the process and effects of nuclear fusion from our sun
the high heat and pressure of our sun combine the nuclei of hydrogen to produce helium, subatomic particles, and energy (heat, sound, and electromagnetic energy)
probably where does most of earths interior energy come from?
the nuclear decay of radioactive materials within earth
heat energy from earths interior is converted into ...
mechanical enerbgy (moutain building, volcanic eruptions, plate movements, etc.)
nuclear decay/nuclear fission/radioactive decay
the process by which unstable or radioactive atomic nuclei of elements, splut to form lighter elements. in the process, larger amounts of energy are released
how is nuclear decay/nuclear fission/radioactive decay helpful on earth?
it is the process emplyed in the atomic reactors used to produce a portion of the nation's electric supply
summary of the process of nuclear decay
the nuclei of radioactive elements are unstable, and they can split to form elements with smaller nuclei, subatomic particles, and large amounts of energy
what gives off the entire electromagnetic spectrum?
the sun
traits of long waves
low frequency and low energy
traits of short waveslike gamma
high frequency loaded w/ energy
what is the realtionship between high temp, and the amount of electromagnetic energy given off?
HIGHER TEMP=MORE ENERGY GIVEN OFF
closed system
insulation-no heat escapes during conduction
what are the major incoming waves like and what are they sent out as?
incoming are short, visible waves converted to long waves (infrared) outgoing waves
what is taht claled?
terrestrial reradiation
why do the waves go back out?
the long waves are trapped ny the clouds of Co2 and water (greenhouse gases) atonopshere heats up
where is the max. potential energy?
at highest point above eart
where is the max kintetic energy
at point of contact
fusion
melting
when does kinetic energy increase during phase changes?
when temp is going up
what is an effect of evaporation?
its causes cooling
what phase has the most PE and KE?
gas
how much energy is gained from melting/lost by freezing?
80 calories per gram
how much energy is gained by evaporation, or vaporization, and lost by condensation?
540 calories per fram stored heat
difference between evaporation and vaporization?
evaporation-only from the surface, below 100 degrees, causing cooling
vaporization- from all over at 100 degrees
radioactive balance
heat gain=heat loss
why does evaporation cause cooling?
bc molecules with the most kinetic energy are lost first becuase they are the ones with the highest temperature and so they are at the top
vibrating speed of wavelengths
short-vibrates rapidly
long-vibrates slowly
why is conduction important?
it is the chief method by which energy moves from earth's surface to the atmosphere