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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what seperates the outer ear from the middle ear?
tympanic membrane
Parts of the auricle:
helix, antihelix, lobule, tragus, antitragus
What process of the incus articulates with the stapes?
The lenticular process on the edge of the long crus of the incus
What space surrounds the ossicles?
Epitympanic recess
What does the bone surrounding the epitympanic recess contain?
The mastoid air cells
Otitis media is what? How do these infections usually occur?
Infection of the middle ear. The pharyngeal tonsil is at the base of the Eustachian tube which leads directly to the middle ear.
What is contained in the middle ear?
ossicles, Eustachian tube, and the epitympanic recess
Describe the significance of the size difference between the tympanic membrane and the footplate of the stapes?
Tympanic membrane is bigger by a ratio of 10:1, this allows for better mechanical detection of sound.
The cochlea is used for what? Contains what necessary structures? Is located where?
Used for hearing, contains the organ of corti, and located in the inner ear in the petrous portion of the temporal bone
What is the route of the facial nerve in relation to the ear structures?
Travels through the internal auditory meatus with CN VIII near to the inner and middle ear structures and out the stylomastoid foramen.
What is the relationship of the internal carotid with the eustacian tube? The internal jugular vein?
Posterior to the Eustachian tube, anterio-lateral to the Eustachian tube
In what direction does the external auditory meatus travel?
Medially, anteriorly, and inferiorly
what is the positioning of the tympanic membrane?
The superior portion tilts laterally to the inferior portion
Where do the tympanic membrane and the malleus connect?
At the umbo
What is the role of the tensor tympani?
It attaches to the malleus and causes the tympanic membrane to tighten as well so it conducts at lower frequencies so it will not break.
The pyramidal eminence in the middle ear contains what structure that attaches where? Which wall of the middle ear does it emerge from?
The tendon of the stapedius muscle which attaches to the stapes. The posterior wall
The processus cochleariformis in the middle ear gives rise to what structure? Which aspect of the middle ear does it emerge from?
The tendon of the tensor tympani. The anterior wall
What is the relative positioning of the chorda tympani in the middle ear?
Enters the middle ear through the posterior iter and travels lateral to the incus and then medial to the malleus to exit through the anterior iter to the petrotympanic fissue. It is superior to the tendons of the stapedius and tensor tympani throughout its course.
What fibers does the chorda tympani convey? From where? What nerve does it join ?
SVA for taste and preganglionic parasympathetics for the submandibular ganglion from the facial nerve and it will join the lingual nerve.
Which process of the malleus contains the umbo?
The lateral process
What fact about the ossicles is a contributing factor to elderly hearing problems?
The synovial joint between the incus and the malleous can develop arthritis
What causes the anterior and posterior malleolar folds in the tympanic membrane?
The chorda tympani
1. posterior malleolar fold
2. maunbrium
3. umbo
4. cone of light
5. pars tensa
6. anterior malleolar fold
7. pars flaccida
describe the pathway of the of the GVE's to the parotid gland.
inferior salvatory nu in the medulla to the glossopharyngeal nerve, through the tympanic plexus to the lesser petrosal to the otic ganglion. The post ganglionics join the auricular temporal branch of the mandibular nerve (V) to innervate the parotid
what is the positional relationship to the eustachian tube and the tensor tympani?
the tensor is just superior to the eustachian tube
what are the three prominences/promotories that are on the wall of the middle ear?
the semicircular prominence, facial prominence, and the cochlear promontory
where in the middle ear can you see fibers of the tympanic plexus? what nerves make up the plexus?
on the cochlear prominence of the medial wall, note they are in the inner ear but can see their indentations. VII and IX.
where does the foot plate of the stapes attach?
at the fossa ovalis (wall connected to vestibuli)
what and where are the two turns of the facial nerve, and what is significant about the more distal one?
The internal genu (1st turn) is the loop around the abducens nucleus in the pons. The external genu is posterior to the inner ear so the facial can exit through the stylomastoid foramen. At this point is the geniculate ganglion where the SVA fibers for taste synapse.
What nerve does the geniculate ganglion give rise to?
the greater petrosal
what are the three semcircular ducts in the vestibular apparatus? How are they oriented? Flow of fluid in the ducts will be the same in which ducts during a head movement?
the anterior, posterior, and horizontal semicircular ducts. They are all ninety degrees apart. The anterior duct of the right ear and the posterior duct of the left ear will have the same movement of fluid (as well as the opposite situation)
what is the difference between semicircular ducts and canals?
the ducts are within the BONY canals. The canals contain perilymph while the ducts contain endolymph.
what is the large canal in the middle of the bony part of the cochlea? What structures are contained within?
the vestibule. It contains the ampulla of the semicircullar ducts as well as two seperate strucutures, the saccule and utricle
what inner ear structure does the stapes affect?
the perilymph in the cochlea creating a wave like effect
what glands produce earwax?
the ceruminous glands
what epi is found on the internal and external tympanic membrane?
internal is simple cuboidal while the external is stratified squamous (continuous with skin in external auditory meatus)
where is the elastic layer in the tympanic membrane?
in the pars tensa between the two epi layers of the tympanic membrane.
what type of epi is found in the eustachian tube?
pseudostratified ciliated epi AKA respiratory epi.
what are the parts of the bony labyrinth? membranous labyrinth?
semicircular canals, vestibule, bony cochlea. semicircular ducts, ampulla, utricle, cochlear duct (AKA scala media)
what is the receptor organ for movement found in the saccule and the utricle? what is the basic mechanism and anatomy of its sensation (specefics asked later)?
the macula. On top of the CT of the saccule is a layer of cells that contain cilia which intrude into the gelatinous layer of the otolithic membrane; the otoconia (otoliths) is the layer of the otolithic membrane on top of the genatinous layer. The jello layer moves like jello when the head moves, detecting acceleration and change in direction, but not traveling at constant velocity. The vestibular part of the vestibulocochlear nerve detects these movements. Note there are horizontal and vertical maculae for detecting horizontal and vertical movement
what are the to different types of cilia in the macula and how do they affect sensation transmission?
the kinocilium is the tallest of the cilia while the stereocilium is the shorter. When the stereocilia bend towards the kinocilium, AP firing rate increases while if they bend away from it, AP frequency decreases thus adding directionality to the system.
what is the special receptor found in the ampulla? general strucutre of it? how do they detect sensation?
the crista ampularis. Group of hair cells with prominent stereocilia with a dome shaped gelatinous membrane over the hairs called the cupula. The three semicircular canals are arranged for 3D detection of movement. As fluid flows through them, it pushes these stereocilia in the ampulla in the opposite direction of the flow due to motion. Since these guys are circular, when you spin around and around, the fluid will keep spinning when you stop, thus you get off balance.
what are the three tubes/layers of the cochlea? What is their orientation?
scala vestibule (upper), scala media (middle-surrounded by membrane, it is also known as the cochlear duct), and scala tympani (lower).
what is the cochlear apex called (where the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani meet)?
the helicotrema
what are the multiple ganglia in the cochlea called? what kind of fibers do they contain?
spiral ganglia. SSA's for hearing.
where is the organ of corti located and what is its general anatomy?
in the cochlea. It is located on the distal end of the bony plate (spiral lamina) that divides scala tympani and vestibuli. It consists of a basilar membrane that contains hair cells with cilia that rise into the gelatinous tectorial membrane.
where is the basilar membrane of the organ of tympani thicker? thinner?
towards the helicotrema it is thicker, toward the origin of the cochlea it is narrower
what secretes endolymph?
the blood vessel in the stria vascularis which is located in the scala media
what cells support the hair cells in the organ of corti?
phalangeal cells (AKA deiters cells)
what is the spiral limbus?
connective tissue that supports the distal parts of the basilar membrane of the organ of corti
the tickness differences of the basilar membrane of the organ of corti result in what?
a tonotopic organization, a secttion of the cochlea responds to specefic frequency sound wave produced by the oscilating ossicles...
How many turns are in the cochlea?
What is the range of human hearing?
20 KHz in the basal end of the cochlea to 20 Hz at the helicotrema.
Where is the primary auditory cortex? How is it organized?
The transverse temporal gyri of Heschel. It is organized tonotopically, higher pitched sounds are deep in the temporal lobe near the insula while lower sounds are closer to the surface of the lobe.
What do you hear in the primary auditory cortex?
Frequency (pitch), volume, direction, and timbre (difference between a trumpet sound and piano, e.g.). NO words (need secondary association area like Wernicke’s for words)
Why is parallel processing nescecary in the auditory pathway?
Some vibration frequencies are faster than the conduction frequencies of the nerve, thus you need more than one pathway.
what are the paths of the auditory tracts?
nuf said
How is the auditory system connected to the visual system?
Collaterals from the brachium of the inferior colliculi travel to the superior colliculi for reflex movement of eyes toward a sound.
The input of the auditory pathways into the reticular formation serves what purpose?
To stimulate a sympathetic effect.
What percentage of fibers end up on the ipsilateral side? Clinical significance?
20 to 30%. Pts who damage the tract will not experience complete deafness in one ear, but a diminished hearing will occur.
What is the olivocochlear bundle and what is its purpose?
Feedback to the vestibulocochlear nerve (through superior olivary nu) and thus to the hair cells in the cochlea from the superior colliculus that exhibits a special somatic efferent functional component. It changes the threshold of hair cells to be more sensitive to low amplitude sounds so that things can be “tuned out.”
What is the only nucleus of the auditory pathway that does not have communication from one side to another?
The medial geniculate body
What does Rinnes’ test test?
Air conduction vs. bone conduction. Normally air conduction is much better than bone conduction. But if something like otitis media is occurring, the middle ear cavity is full of fluid, thus bone conduction would be better. Arthritic changes in the ossicles would show bone conduction is better as well. If nerve damage had occurred, the pt. would not hear either.
What does Weber’s test test?
Tuning fork to the middle of the forehead should result in bone conduction and air conduction. Bone conduction would be increased on the side that is infected.
The crista ampularis detects what? Macula?
Movement from side to side. Inertia.
How does the vestibular system travel to consciousness?
It does not, it is only a reflex.
How many vestibular nuclei are there and what are their names?
4 pairs… superior, medial, lateral, and inferior (spinal)
How do fibers get to the vestibular ganglia from the ear?
Bipolar neurons with bodies in the vestibular ganglia that travel to all 4 of the vestibular nuclei.
Where in the cerebellum do the vestibular fibers travel?
To the flocconodular lobe
what type of neurons are found in the vestibular ganglia?
bipolar neurons
where in the vestibular tract do cerebellar structures get input and what are the cerebellar parts that get input?
from the bipolar neurons from the vestibular ganglia (note this is before they synapse on the vestibular nuclei). These fibers go to the flocculonodular lobe
The vestibulospinal tract originates where? travels in what direction? utilizes what tract?
in the superior and medial vestibular nuclei, fibers then travel ipsi or contralaterally to the MLF to ascend.
where does the medial vestibulospinal tract originate? where does it travel? what does it do?
from the medial, lateral and inferior vestibular nuclei to the ipsi and contralateral MLF oand travels down mainly to upper cord levels to change tone in arms, shoulders and other antigravity muscles.
the lateral vestibulospinal tract originates where? travels where? does what?
from the lateral vestibular nucleus down the ipsilateral lateral vestibulospinal tract which is in the anterior fasciculus of the cord to inhibit the flexors of the arm and to excite the extensors in the leg
if the head is moved to the left, in terms of eye movement, what nuclei will be stimulated first? next step?
the left superior and left medial vestibular nuclei then to the contralateral lateral gaze center thus your eyes will go right.
explain what happens when cold water is put in the right ear? hot water? what is this test called and what does it test for?
eyes slowly drift to the right and then snap back to the left thus a left nystagmus. hot water causes a right nystagmus. This is called the COWS test (calloric testing for vestibular function).