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59 Cards in this Set

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nitroglycerin
organonitrates

sublingual

NO --> increase cGMP --> vascular smooth muscle relaxation
isosorbide dinitrate
organonitrates

sublingual

NO --> increase cGMP --> vascular smooth muscle relaxation
amyl nitrate
organonitrates

inhaled

NO --> increase cGMP --> vascular smooth muscle relaxation
verapamil
non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker

negative inotrope
negative chronotrope
vasodilator
nifedipine
dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker

vasodilator only
diltiazem
non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker

negative inotrope
negative chronotrope
vasodilator
propranolol
beta-blocker

decrease heart rate and contractility
hydralazine
arterial vasodilator

open K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle
minoxidil
arterial vasodilator

open K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle

aka Rogaine
diazoxide
arterial vasodilator

anti-anginal
nitroprusside
arterial and venous vasodilator

anti-anginal
digoxin
positive inotropic agent
cardiac glycoside

inhibit Na+/K+ ATPase
increase Ca in cell

interactions with quinidine, hypokalemia, renal failure
dobutamine
positive inotropic agent
sympathomimetics

beta agonist
inotropic > chronotropic

IV only
dopamine
positive inotropic agent
sympathomimetics

CHF
amrinone
positive inotropic agent
PDE (phosphodiesterase) inhibitors

increase cAMP
cardiac = PDE III

hepatoxic
acute IV
milrinone
positive inotropic agent
PDE (phosphodiesterase) inhibitors

increase cAMP
cardiac = PDE III
captopril
ACE inhibitor

decrease Ang2
increase bradykinin

active drug
Lisinopril
ACE inhibitor

decrease Ang2
increase bradykinin

prodrug
Enalapril
ACE inhibitor

decrease Ang2
increase bradykinin

active drug
water-soluble
longer half-life
aspirin
anti-platelet agent

irreversible inhibitor of COX-1
tPA
tissue plasminogen activator

fibrinolytic agent

clot-selective
activate plasminogen
Propranolol
beta-blocker
losartan
ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker)

receptor: AT2
avoid bradykinin buildup
valsartan
ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker)

receptor: AT2
avoid bradykinin buildup
heparin
anti-thrombotic

major: binds anti-thrombin III (AT III)

minor: inhibit clotting factor Xa
enoxaparin
anti-thrombotic

LMWH (low-molecular weight heparin)

major: inhibit clotting factor Xa
minor: bind antithrombin III
leprudin
direct thrombin inhibitor
bevalirudin
direct thrombin inhibitor
warfarin / coumarin
oral anti-coagulant

vit K analog --> epoxide reductase inhibitor

teratogenic
streptokinase
fibrinolytic agent

convert plasminogen to plasmin
anistreplase
fibrinolytic agent

acetylated plasminogen + streptokinase
ticlopine
anti-platelet agent

inhibit ADP-mediated platelet aggregation
clopidogrel
anti-platelet agent

inhibit ADP-mediated platelet aggregation
abcximab
anti-platelet agent

blocks platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors
integrelin
anti-platelet agent

blocks platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors
hydrochlorthiazide
thiazide diuretic

decrease Na / Cl absorption
distal convoluted tubule
furosemide
loop diuretic

inhibit Na/K/Cl transporter
loop of henle
spironolactone
K-sparing diuretic

aldosterone antagonist
collecting duct
amiloride
K-sparing diuretic

inhibit Na absorption
collecting duct
triamterine
K-sparing diuretic

inhibit Na absorption
collecting duct
prazosin
alpha-blocker

inhibit alpha-1 receptor on arterioles --> relaxation
clonidine
central adrenergic inhibitors

decrease NE release

central alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist
methydopa
central adrenergic inhibitors

decrease NE release

replaces NE in storage vesicles, alpha-2 agonist
reserpine
central adrenergic inhibitors

decrease NE release

inhibit NE uptake --> reduce transmitter content --> reduce peripheral adrenergic output
quinidine
class IA anti-arrhythmic
procainamide
class IA anti-arrhythmic
disopyramide
class IA anti-arrhythmic
lidocaine
class IB anti-arrhythmic
mexiletine
class IB anti-arrhythmic
tocainide
class IB anti-arrhythmic
phenytoin
class IB anti-arrhythmic
flecanide
class IC anti-arrhythmic
propafenone
class IC anti-arrhythmic
moricizine
class IC anti-arrhythmic
amiodarone
class III anti-arrhythmic
also class I, II, IV properties

FDA black box
toxicities with liver, thyroid, pulmonary fibrosis, corneal deposits, photodermatitis
bretylium
class III anti-arrhythmic
sotalol
class III anti-arrhythmic
also beta blocker
ibutilide
class III anti-arrhythmic
adenosine
anti-arrhythmic

short half life (10 secs)
terminate re-entry into AV node

atagonist = methylxanthine = caffine