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20 Cards in this Set

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1. This axis is responsible for Flex and Ext and responds to truncal motion

2. After the spine flexes further, what does sacrum do?

3. Where is the axis of the MTA
1. Middle transverse axis


2. Extends

3. Anterior at S2
2. Kottle demonstrated the mobility of the sacrum on MTA to be how many degrees?
5 in F and E
3.This Axis moves with respiratory motion? Superior to MTA

4. Motion with inhalation and exhalation
Superior Transverse axis -


extension with inhalation
and flexion with exhalation.
cranial flexion of midline bones => sacral extension (sacral base posterior)
and external rotation of the paired bones
4. It is the axis on which the innominates rotate during the gate cycle

4. What are the oblique axes named for and where do they intersect?
inferior Transverse Axis


superior pole - S2
5. When the left foot is forward, what oblique axis is anterior?
the right, and As the leg comes forward, the sacral sulcus on that side swings forward and the contralateral inferior lateral angle moves posteriorly and inferiorly.
6. When do you see the Sacrum move about the AP axis?
Traumatic events
7. the vertical axis is not a true sacral axis, but it does correlate to
pelvic rotation in the gate cycle.
8. What are the 3 signs of a sacral dyfs
There will be palpable asymmetry of the sacral sulci (one deeper and one shallower).
The sulci and ILAs are compared to each other, not to ideal normal.
There will be palpable asymmetry of the inferior lateral angles (one posterior and inferior, one anterior and superior)
9. Important ILA pairs?

9. 4 tests for unilateral sacral dys
Post and inf
ant and sup

9. Seated Flexion Test
Sphinx Test
Lumbar Spring Test
Four Digit Contact
10. Describe Positive Seated flexion test

10. Lumbar Spring Test (not logical)
10. Truncal flexion is carried out in a seated position. The side of the high riding PSIS is the side of restriction.

(A POSITIVE) The absence of spring (stiffness) indicates a posteriorly going dysfunction (extension or posterior torsion) LoR or RoL

(A NEGATIVE TEST) The presence of spring (softness) indicates an anteriorly going dysfunction (flexion or anterior torsion)RoR LoL
11. Describe SS (sacral sulcus) Anterior/ flexion dysf in sphinx

this flexes side of sacrum that CAN move

11. Post/ or extension in sphinx
If a forward going dysfunction is present (flexion or anterior torsion), the sacral sulci become more symmetric.

If a backward going dysfunction is present (extension or posterior torsion), the sacral sulci become more asymmetric
12.There are 8 unilateral dysfuntions of the sacrum torsion and Side on Side
first 4
1Anterior Torsion on Right Oblique Axis
Right on Right Sacral Torsion
2 Anterior Torsion on Left Oblique Axis
Left on Left Sacral Torsion
3 Posterior Torsion on Right Oblique Axis
Left on Right Sacral Torsion
4 Posterior Torsion on Left Oblique Axis
Right on Left Sacral Torsion
13. What is a torsion?
If you examine the top sacral transverse processes and compare them to the bottom sacral transverse processes, it appears that they have rotated in opposite directions.
Two parts of the same object rotating in opposite directions about an axis is biomechanical torsion (wringing the washcloth).
P A
----
A P
14.Define compensated L 5

decompensated L 5
When this normal torsional mechanism is in place it is called a compensated L5. Rotates Opposite from S1

When L5 is dys relative to the sacrum and this rotates WITH the SACRUM instead of the ilia
15. Rotation about the sacrum is determined by the anterior or posterio most point on the sacrum
15. Anterior
16. name the last 4 unilateral dysf of sacrum
Flexed (aka sacral shear)
Unilateral Flexed Sacrum Right
Unilateral Flexed Sacrum Left
Extended
Unilateral Extended Sacrum Right
Unilateral Extended Sacrum Left
17. Key Dx for Bilateral Flexed sacrum
Concrete Sacrum for sacral rock! (a positive test) and very deep or very shallow SS
18. Name the 2 bilateral dyf
Bilateral flex and extension (ILA are shallow)
19. Can you get anterior and posterior translated sacrum? Describe SS
Yes
Post - shallow
ant - deep
20. What is hiplsit?
Hip Muscle Dysfunctions
Innominate Shears
Pubic Symphysis Dysfunction
Lumbar Dysfunction
Sacral Dysfunctions
Innominate Rotations & Flares
Thoracic Dysfunction