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50 Cards in this Set

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Describe the levels of cellular organization and state the four types of specialized cells and tissues.
Classified according to function
Mucsle, epithelial, nervous, connective
Organs form systems, systems form groups of organs that function together to form an organism
List the organ systems of the body and give one-sentence descriptions of their functions.
Circulatory- transports blood
Digestive- digestion and absorption of nutrients and water
Endocrine- reg and coordination of many activities
Immune- defense against pathogens
Intedumentary- protects against injury, dehydration and foreign invaders
lymphatic- collects and returns fluid
Musculoskeletal- supports and protects the body and movement
Nervous-reg and coord. body activities, detects change internal and external environ. allows for cognition and learning
Reproductive- produces sperm/ produces eggs
Respiratory- exhange of O2/CO2 to and from cells and blood
Urinary- reg. plasma concent. of minerals and water excretes waste
2 fluids that constitute extracellular fluid
Plasma fluid portion of blood 20-25%
Interstitial fluid 75-80%
State the relative volumes of water in the body fluid compartments
water 55-60% normal body wieght
2/3 intracellular
1/3 extracellular
Describe several important generalizations about homeostatic control systems
Perform regulatory response to preseve relatively stable conditions of internal envrionment
a) Stability of an internal environmental variable- by balancing inputs and outputs
b) Nevagive feedmack- brings about a response that moves in direction opposite of original change- minimizes change from set point
c) homeostatic control systems minimize change in internal environment- not constant, but dynamic
d) can be reset- raised or lowered
e) hierarchy of importance for control
Contrast feedforward and negative feedback
feedforward- adaptive response in anticipation of a change in environment before homeostais is affected. minimizes fluctuations
Negative feedback- response that tends to be after there has been a chang in the environment- restores to normal set point
Components of reflex arc
Stimulus
Receptor
Afferent pathway
affector
Integration center
Effector
Response
Efferent pathway
Difference between local homeostatic response and relfex arc
In a reflex, nerves, or hormones act as the different efferent or afferent pathways. local repsonse- long distance control is not necessary
List general categories for intercellular messangers
neurotransmitter, hormone, and autorcrine/paracrine glands
Describe conditions under whic acclimatizaton occur. In what period of life are they irreversible? Passed down to offspring?
Improved ability to respond to environmental stress, over time. Irreversible in early life. Not genetic
Under what circumstances can circadian ryhthms be free running?
in the absence of cues- constant darkness or light
How do phase shifts occur?
When you shift to a different light/dark cycle
What is the most important environmetal cue for entrainment of body rhythms?
the light/dark cycle
What are the three possible states of total-body balance of any chemical?
Negative- loss is more than gain
Positive- gain is more than loss
Stable- if equal
Describe electrical charge, mass and location fo the three major subatomic particles in an atom
Proton-positive, in nucleus
Electron-negative, in orbital shells
Neutron- no charge, in nucleus
Which 4 kinds of atoms are most abundant in the body?
Hydrogen (63%)
Oxygen ( 26%)
Carbon (9%)
Nitrogen (1%)
Describe distinguishing characteristics of the three classes of essential chemical elements found in the body
Major-O, H, C, N 99.3%
7 essential minerals- mosted abundant substances dissolved in the body fluids
13 trace elements are present in small quantities but are essential for normal body functions
How many covalent bonds can be formed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen
Carbon= 4
Nitrogen= 3
Oxygen = 2
Hydrogen= 1
What property of molecules allow then to change their 3D shape
they are not rigid, they can rotate around thier covalent bonds to form different shapes
Describe how an ion is formed
When an atom eigher gains or loses one or more electrons
gain= cation
lose= anion
draw the structures of an ionized carboxyl group and an ionoized amino group
O
II
R - C - O
Carboxyl R-COO
Amino Acid R-NH3+
H
I+
R - N - H
I
H
Define free radical
Contains a single unpaired electron in outermost shell
highly reactive
Describe polar characteristics ofa water molecule
(+) (-) (+)
H O H
Hydrogen bonds are polar, oxygen has 8 times as many protons as H, it draws the shared electrons closer to it's nucleus
What determines a molecules' solubility or lack of solubility in water?
Soluble- polarized or ionized, must be hydrophilic
Insoluble- nonpolar, hydrophobic
Describe organization of amphipatic molecues in water
Hydrophilic heads clustered to outside and hydrophobic heads situated on inside away from water
What is the molar concentration of 80 g glucose in 2L water?
Molecular weight is 180 g/mole
180/80 g glucoes = .44 mole glucose/ 2L water = .22 mole/L
What distinguishes a strong acid from a weak acid?
Strong acids are completely ionized in water, weak acids are not
What effect does increase in pH of a solution have upon the ionization of a carboxyl group?
amino acid
alters the net electrical charge by shifting reaction to the right or left
when you add more H+ to weak acid and weak base it increases the ionization of the weak acid and decreases the ionization of the weak base
Name 4 classes of organic molecules in the body
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Describe the three subclasses of CHO
monosaccharides- simple sugar
disaccharides- 2 monosaccharides bonded together
Polysaccharides- polymers of monosaccharides
which subclass do these belong to?
glucose, sucrose, glycogen
mono, di, polysaccharide
What properties are characteristic of lipids?
composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms
nonpolar low solubility in water
Describe triglycerides
"fat" 3 fatty acids to 3 glycerol
Fatty acid
chain of carbon and hydrogen with acidic hydroxyl group at one end. If all bonds are single covalent=saturated fat
If one or more double bonds H = unsaturated
Phospholipids
amphipathic form glycerol 2 bonded to 3 fatty acids
forms phospholipid bilayers of all cell membranes
Steroids
4 interconnected rings of carbon bound to H+
Describe lingages between acids that form polypetide chains
AA linked together with a carboxyl group of 1 AA and the amino group of another
Difference between polypeptide and protein
polypeptide < 50 AA
protein > 50 AA
What two factors determine primary structure of a polypeptide chain?
# of AA in chain
specific type and position of the AA in the chain
Describe interactions that determine conformation of polypeptide chain?
Determined by H+ bonds b/w proteins of chain or water
ionic bonds b/w polar and ionized regions along chain
attraction of nonpolar regions
covalent disulfide bonds linking sulfur containing side chains of two cystine AA
Van der waals forces-
H bonds b/w H linked to nitrogen in one peptid and oxygen in another occuring at regular interval forms alpha helix
H bonds b/w peptide bonds running parallel forms beta sheet
which subclass do these belong to?
glucose, sucrose, glycogen
mono, di, polysaccharide
What properties are characteristic of lipids?
composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms
nonpolar low solubility in water
Describe triglycerides
"fat" 3 fatty acids to 3 glycerol
Fatty acid
chain of carbon and hydrogen with acidic hydroxyl group at one end. If all bonds are single covalent=saturated fat
If one or more double bonds H = unsaturated
Phospholipids
amphipathic form glycerol 2 bonded to 3 fatty acids
forms phospholipid bilayers of all cell membranes
Steroids
4 interconnected rings of carbon bound to H+
Describe lingages between acids that form polypetide chains
AA linked together with a carboxyl group of 1 AA and the amino group of another
Difference between polypeptide and protein
polypeptide < 50 AA
protein > 50 AA
What two factors determine primary structure of a polypeptide chain?
# of AA in chain
specific type and position of the AA in the chain
Describe interactions that determine conformation of polypeptide chain?
Determined by H+ bonds b/w proteins of chain or water
ionic bonds b/w polar and ionized regions along chain
attraction of nonpolar regions
covalent disulfide bonds linking sulfur containing side chains of two cystine AA
Van der waals forces-
H bonds b/w H linked to nitrogen in one peptid and oxygen in another occuring at regular interval forms alpha helix
H bonds b/w peptide bonds running parallel forms beta sheet