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17 Cards in this Set

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What are the monomers of DNA?
Nucloetides
What are the 3 components of DNA?
Deoxyribose,Phosphate Group, and Nitrogenous Base
Name the 4 nitrogenous bases.
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine
What are purines and purimidines and which bases are which?
Purines- has a double carbon, nitrogen ring, ex. Adenine, and Guanine
Pyrimidines-has a single carbon, nitrogen ring, ex. Thymine, Cytosine
Name the enzymes involved in DNA Replication.
DNA Helicase-splits hydrogen bonds
DNA Polymerase-reads bases and matches complementary base pairs
DNA Ligase-puts together bonds
Which Nucleotides switch in RNA?
Thymine to Uracil
Name the differences between DNA and RNA.
RNA vs. DNA

Single Stranded vs. Double Stranded
Ribose vs. Deoxyribose
Uracil vs. Thymine
Name the 3 types of RNA.
rRNA-ribosomal RNA-structure for ribosome
mRNA-messenger RNA-genetic code for proteins
tRNA-transfer RNA-brings amino acids to ribosome, and very specific
What is Transcription?
Transcription is the process of copying DNA to RNA.
Opens up the DNA, RNA polymerase finds complementary base pairs, and stops at the promoter.
Compare Codons and Anticodons.
Codon-Set of 3 bases on mRNA
Anticodon-3 complementary bases to codons and is on tRNA.
What is Translation?
The process of building a polypeptide chain using the types of RNA.
How does Translation occur?
mRNA slides into ribosomes
tRNA enters the P site at start codon
Another tRNA enters A site
Polypeptide bond forms and breaks from tRNA
1st tRNA leaves and ribosome moves
Continues until it reaches a stop codon
What did Frederick Grifith achieve?
Griffith hypothesized about transformation, which says that a factor if passed on can change or "transform" cells.
How did Avery et al further prove Griffith's theory of transformation among cells?
They found the transformation factor by experimenting with enzymes that broke down specific molecules on an extract of Grffith's cells. Then they tested the extract to see if the transformation factor was still there. The result proved that DNA was the factor.
What did Hershey and Chase work on?
The two scientist studied bacteriophages used radioactive sulfur and phosphorus to track what was producing more viruses. The results ended up to be DNA again.
What are the differnet types of Mutations?
Substitution- change in one nucleotide, therefore a change in the codon, and may change the amino acid. this type is not as bad, du to the redundancy in the coding for amino acids
Frame Shift-Affects all other codons after the mutated one
Addition/Deletion of a nucleotide
How does Sickle Cell Anemia occur?
A substitution of a nucleotide that affects the structure of hemoglobin.