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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the fxn of the digestive system?
Nutrients, water, and electrolutes are brokendown into simple molecules, absorbed, and transported to cells via circulatory system.
What are the (4) basic digestive processes?
Motility, secretion, digestion, absorption
What is the term that describes the propulsive movement of food through the tract at the appropriate speed?
What are the the (2) types of movements in motility?
propulsive and mixing/churning
What substances are actively secreted by specific exocrine glands along the digestive route?
Water, electrolytes, enzymes, bile salts, and mucus
What is type(s) of stimulation is required for the release of the substances during secretion?
Neural and hormonal stimulation
During digestion, what happening in enzymatic hydrolysis?
Biochemical breakdown of structurally complex foodstuffs into absorbable units which are facilitated by specific enzymes.
What are the (4) enzymes used to breakdown CHO3's?
amylase, maltase, sucrase, lactase
Which enzyme breaksdown starch and glycogen into maltose?
What enzyme breaksdown maltose into glucose?
What enzyme breaksdown sucrose into glucose and fructose?
What enzyme breaksdown lactose into glucose and galactose?
Which enzyme does not breakdown its substance into a monosaccharide?
What are the (4) enzymes that breakdown proteins into amino acids?
chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, pepsin, trypsin
Lipase breaks fats into what (2) substances?
monoglycerides and fatty acids
What does glucose and fructose make up?
What does glucose and galactose make up?
What is lymph?
Intersitial fluid that travels through lymphatic vessels, passes thru lymph nodes for defense purposes, then returns to the venous system for recirculation.
What is the process that is defined as trasfer of products resulting from digestion (along with water, vitamins, and electrolytes) from the intestinal lumen into blood or lymph?
Where does absorption primarily occur?
Small intestines
From outermost to innermost, what are the (4) tissue layers of the digestive tract?
serosa, muscularis externa, submucosa, mucosa
Which tissue layer contains a watery fluid which provides lubriation and prevents friction b/w viscera?
Which tissue later contains large blood vessels and lymph vessels and also gives distensibility?
What specific tissue layer controls the length of the tract by shortening while contracting?
outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa
What specific tissue layer controls the diameter of the digestive tract when contracting?
inner longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa
What specific layer of the digestive tract has GALT (gut associated lymphatic tissue)?
Lamina propria layer of the mucosa
What specific layer of the digestive tract functions in absorption and secretion of hormones and digestive juices?
mucous membrane
What type of cells aid in the secretion of hormones?
endocrine cells
What type of cells aid in the secretion of digestive juices?
exocrine cells
What type of cells aid in absorption?
epithelial cells
Starting from the outermost to innermost, what are the (3) tissue layers of the mucosa layer?
muscularis mucosa, lamina propria, and mucous membrane
True or False: Absorption of nutrients occur in the mouth?
What structure separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity?
What structure seals off the nasal passage while swallowing?
What is another word for deglutition?
What structure houses taste buds and also guides bolus while chewing?
What part of the pharynx is air passage only?
What part of the pharynx is a passageway for both food and air?
What routes air to the trachea and food to the esophagus?
What are the (3) glands that secrete saliva?
sublingual gland, submandibular gland, and the parotid glands
What gland is located under the tongue?
sublingual gland
What gland is located posterior and inferior to the mandible?
submandibular gland
What gland is loacated anterior to the ears?
parotid glands
What substances make up saliva?
salivary amylase, mucus, and lysozyme
How does bolus move to the stomach?
by peristalic waves
What structure prevents food from entering the trachea during deglutition?
Weakness of this sphincter can lead to acid reflux?
gastroesophageal sphincter
What are the (3) sections of the stomach?
fundus, body, and antrum/pylorus
What structure controls the emptying into small intestine by contraction and relaxation?
pyloric sphincter
What are the fxns of the stomach?
1. storage for ingested food before entering sm. intestine
2. secretion of HCL and proteases that begin protein digestion
3. chyme formation
4. houses gastric pits
What are (3) types of cells do gastric pits contain?
mucous neck cells, chief cells, and parietal cells
What is the fxn of the mucous neck cells?
secretes mucus
What substance is secreted from chief cells?
What is the inactive form of protein digesting pepsin?
What substances are secreted by parietal cells?
HCL and intrinsic factor
What are the fxns of HCL in the stomach?
It converts pepsinogen to pepsin, aids in breakdown of CT and muscle fiber in meat, and has antimicrobial properties.
What types of cells produce enzymes in the exocrine functions of the pancreas?
acinar cells
What (3) types of enzymes do acinar cells produce?
proteolytic enzymes, pancreatic amylase, and pancreatic lipase
Intrinsic factor faciliates the absorption of what vitamin that is important in the maturation of RBC's?
Vitamin B12
What are the (3) inactive proteolytic enzymes in the pancreas?
trypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase, and chymotrypsinogen
What is the active form of trypsinogen in the small intestine?
What is the active form of procarboxypeptidase in the small intestine?
What is the active form of chymotrypsinogen in the small intestine?
What is the pancreatic enzyme that is responsible for CHO3 digestion?
pancreatic amylase
What is the only digestive enzyme capable of digesting fat?
pancreatic lipase
In the endocrine function of the pancreas, what are the specific cells called?
Islets of Langerhans
What are the fxns of the Islets of Langerhans?
secrete insulin and glucagon
What cells is insulin secrected from?
What cells is glucagon secreted from?
What is the function of glucagon?
Breakdown of glycogen into glucose which increases plasma glucose levels
What is the function of insulin?
glucose uptake; decrease plasma glucose levels
What is the process where a detergent action converts large fat globules into small fat droplets with increased surface area for lipase action?
What is the function of bile salts?
It facilitates in digestion and absorption of fat, but themselves have NO enzymatic digesting abilities
After emulsification, what are the droplets converted to?
What is the function of micelles?
Transports droplets to small intestine for absorption and are made up of phospholipids, fat and bile salts?
Where is bile stored and secreted?
Where is bile produced?
What are the (3) sections of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Absorption is facilitated by what 2 structures?
villi and microvilli
Microvilli are projections from what type of cells?
individual epithelial cells
Villi are projections from what type of cells?
mucosa cells
What controls emptying into the large intestine?
ileocecal valve
What is a structure made of lymphoid tissue that houses B and T lymphocyte cells?
What large intestine secretion neutralizes acids produced by bacterial fermentation?
What large intestine secretion helps facilitate the passage of waste?
What type of contractions move the contents in the large intestine which are autonomically controlled?
haustral contractions
The large intestine is the site of what substances to be absorbed?
water and salt
What are the causes of Appendicitis?
fecal mass, mucosal ulceration, or viral infection
What is the pathophysiology of Appendicitis?
Inflammation blocks mucus outflow from the appendix which causes high pressure to build up and restricts blood flow to the organ and causes severe pain. The inflammation can leas to infection, clotting, tissue decay, and perforation of the appendix.
What happens if the appendix ruptures in Appendicitis?
The infected contents spill into the abdominal cavity causing peritonitis.
What is the condition for inflammation causing distension of the gallbladder?
What is the most common cause of Cholecystitis?
gall stones
What is the pathophysiology of Cholecystitis?
Abnormalities to the gall bladder that cause gallstones. These block bile flow resulting the gallbladder to become inflammed and distended. Cells in the gallbladder wall may become oxygen starved and die as the distended organ presses on vessels and impairs blood flow.
Vitamin K, a low fat diet and antibiotics can be a treatment for what?
Habitually ingested irritants, anti-inflammatory drugs, and ammonia/mercury are all causes of what disorder?