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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
motility
moving contents down digestive tract
nucleases
break down DNA and RNA into nucleotides
amylases
break down complex polysaccharides into tri & disaccharides
proteases
break down large proteins into tripeptides, dipeptides and individual amino acids
lipases
break down fats and oils into two fatty acids plus monoglyceride
fundus
upper part of stomach
body
central part of stomach
antrum
lower part of stomach
small intestine portions
duodenum
jejunum
ileum
large intestine portions
ascending colon
transverse colon
descending colon
sigmoid colon
lumen
cavity of any tube

filled with chyme
mucosa
made of three layers

inner most layer of epithelial cells - in contact w/ chyme
submucosa
made of connective tissue
muscularis externa
two layers of smooth muscle, some neurons
serosa
outer layer of connective tissue
structure of digestive tract wall
lumen
mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
serosa
gastrin
hormone released by endocrine cells in epithelial layer of antrum region

causes release of acid into stomach and stronger stomach contractions
stomach distention
food filling and stretching
goblet cell
secretes mucus in stomach
parietal cell
secretes HCl in stomach
chief cell
secretes pepsinogen in stomach
bicarbonate
secretion in pancreas

neutralize acid from stomach

release stimulated by secretin
active enzymes
secretion in pancreas

stimulated by CCK
enteropeptidase
cleaves trypsinogen which converts it to trypsin
bile salts
solubilize fats
bilirubin
waste
cholesterol
waste
trace metals
waste
four functions of digestive system
secretion
digestion
absorption (NOT REGULATED)
motility
fat in duodenum causes release of...
CCK
structures inside villus of small intestine
capillaries and lacteals
secretin
(what causes it and what does it cause?)
released due to acid in small intestine

cause pancrease to release bicarbonate and stomach to contract less
CCK
(what causes it and what does it cause?)
released due to distnetino and fat in small intestine

cause pancreas to release digestive enzymes and protease precursors and stomach to contract less
GIP
(what causes it and what does it cause?)
released due to gluclose (and fat) in small intestine

cause pancreas to release insulin and stomach to contract less
chylomicrons

(also, where do they go & why?)
droplets of clusters of triglycerides

enter the lacteals, too big to go thru capillaries
segmentation
contraction in small intestine

rhymic contractino and relaxation which causes mixing but NO NET MOVEMENT
basic electrical rhythm of the intestine
9-12 contractions per minute
migrating motiltiy complex

(also, when does it start?)
starts when absorption finishes

peristaltic activity that travel short distance
mass movement
motility in large intestine

peristaltic waves that push contents into rectum