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90 Cards in this Set

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x-ray series after joint injected w/air or fluid to permit visualization of joint structures
x-ray of cervical or lumbar intervetebral disk after injection of contrast dye into nucleuo pulposus
x-ray after injection of contrast into sinus tract (deep draining wound).
what does a sinogram visualize?
course of sinus and tissues involved
full name of CT
computed tomography
CT scan
an x-ray beam is used with a computer to produce a 3-D picture
CT scan uses
soft tissue abnormalities, bony abnormalities, and various musculoskeletal trauma
full name of MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
radio waves and magnetic field used to view soft tissue ~ gadolinium may be injected to enhance visualization
contraindications for MRI
no metal!!! including clips and other things that may be inside the patient's body
full name of DEXA
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
measures bone mass of spine, femur, forearm, and total body
advantages of DEXA
allows assessment of bone density with minimal radiation exposure ~ painless
what is DEXA used to diagnose
metabolic bone disease and to monitor changes in bone density with treatment
full name of QUS
quantitative ultrasound
evaluates density, elasticity, and strength of patella and calcaneus
advantages of QUS
uses ultrasound rather than radiation ~ painless
Bone scan
radioisotope injected and taken up by bone. geiger counter scans entire body and results recorded on paper. Degree of uptake is r/t blood flow to bone
bone scan ~ increased uptake may mean...
osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, primary and metastatic malignant lesions of bone, and certain fractures
bone scan ~ decreased uptake may mean...
avascular necrosis
bone scan ~ patient preparation
radioisotope injected 2 hr before procedure; bladder should be emptied before scan; patient lies supine for 1 hr; increase fluids after exam
musculoskeletal diagnostic studies: radiologic studies
x-ray; arthrogram; diskogram; sinogram; CT scan; MRI
musculoskeletal diagnostic studies: bone mineral density measurements (BMD)
musculoskeletal diagnostic studies: radioisotope studies
bone scan
musculoskeletal diagnostic studies: endoscopy
musculoskeletal diagnostic studies: mineral metabolism
Alkaline phosphatase; calcium; phosphorus
musculoskeletal diagnostic studies: serologic studies
RF; ESR; ANA; andi-DNA antibody; complement; uric acid; CRP, HLA-B27
musculoskeletal diagnostic studies: muscle enzymes
CK; aldolase
musculoskeletal diagnostic studies: invasive procedures
arthrocentesis; EMG
musculoskeletal diagnostic studies: miscellaneous
thermography; plethysmography; SSEP
alkaline phosphatase
enzyme produced by osteoblasts
elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase found in...
healing fractures, bone cancers, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease
normal alkaline phosphatase levels
20-90 U/L (0.3 - 2.7 mmol/L)
decreased serum calcium is found in...
osteomalacia; renal disease; mypoparathyroidism
increased serum calcium is found in...
chronic renal disease; healing fractures; osteolytic metastatic tumor
normal serum calcium levels
9 - 11 mg/dl (0.9 - 1.5 mmol/L)
decreased serum phosphorus is found in
increased serum phosphorus is found in
chronic renal disease; healing fractures; osteolytic metastatic tumor
normal serum phosphorus levels
2.8 - 4.5 mg/dl (0.9 - 1.5 mol/L)
full name of RF
rheumatoid factor
checks for presense of rheumatoid factor antibody; nonspecific for rheumatoid arthritis;
measures how fast red blood cells settle out of unclotted blood in 1 hr
elevated ESR levels are seen in...
any inflammatory process, especially rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, osteomyelitis, respiratory infections
normal ESR
< 20 mm/hr. some gender variation
full name of ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Full name of ANA
anitnuclear antibody
checks for antibodies capable of destroying nucleus of body's tissue cells
positive ANA found in 95%...
patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
positive ANA may also be found in...
systemic scleroderma (sclerosis); rheumatoid arthritis; small normal population
Anti-DNA antibody
detects serum antibodies that react with DNA
What is the most specific test for systemic lupus erythematosus
Anti-DNA antibody
what is complement?
a normal body protein essential to both immune and inflammatory reactions
what happens to complement during immune and inflammatory reactions
it is depleted
depleted complement may be found in ...
patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus
what is uric acid?
end product of purine metabolism
elevated levels of uric acid may mean...
patient has gout
full name of CRP
C-reactive protein
study diagnoses inflammatory diseases, infections, and active widespread malignance
how is CRP made?
synthesized in the liver
relation between CRP and tissue damage
present in large amounts after onset of tissue damage
normal uric acid levels
men: 4.5-5.5 mg/dl
women: 2.5-5.5 mg/dl
normal CRP
full name of HLA-B27
Human leukocyte antigen - B27
antigen present in disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis
full name of CK
creatine kinase
highest concentration of CK found in...
skeletal muscles
increased CK levels are found in...
progressive muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, traumatic injuries
normal CK levels
men: 5-55 U/L
women: 5-35 U/L
use for aldolase study
monitoring muscular dystrophy and dermatomyositis
normal aldolase levels
1-75 U/L
incision or puncture of joint capsuel to remove synovial fluid ~ aseptic technique
full name fo EMG
EMG study evaluates
electrical potential associated w/ muscle contraction
EMG procedure
small-gauge needles incerted into certan muscles. Records electrical impulses from muscles
before EMG patient should not have...
have caffiene, stimulants, sedatives for 24 hours
uses of EMG
gives info related to lower motor neuron dysfunction and primary muscle disease
measures degree of heat radiating from skin surface
thermography is useful for...
checking inflamed joint and patient response to anti-inflammatory drug therapy
records variations in volume and pressure of blood passing through tissues ~ non-specific
full name of SSEP
somatosensory evoked potential
study evaluates evoked potential o fmuscle contractions - like EMG but does not involve needles, electrodes are applied to the skin
normal cynovial fluid appearance
transparent and colorless or straw-colored
appearance of synovial fluid in gout
may be whitish yellow
mucin clot test
indicated the character of the protein portion of the synovial fluid
normal mucin clot
white, ropelike
how does mucin clot in the presence of an inflammatory process
clot breaks apart easily and fragments
fat globules in synovial indicate...
bone injury
normal WBC count
less than 200 cells/ul with fewer than 25% neutrophils and no bacteria
conditions under which arthroscopy is performed
sterile conditions
what study shows the hydrogen density of thissues within the body