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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 hiatus in the diaphragm?
• inferior vena cava
• esophagus
• aorta
What are 3 abnormal bowel gas patterns that can be seen on an abdominal X-ray?
• adynamic ileus
• mechanical small bowel obstruction
• mechanical large bowel obstruction
What are some characteristics of an adynamic ileus?
• caused by loss of peristalsis throughout the GI tract
• on Xray, you would see gas in the colon, small bowel (EVERYWHERE)
What does an abdominal abscess look like on chest x-ray?
• an isolated and defined gas pattern
• gas comes from gas-forming bacteria that is present
• gas does not conform to a bowel loop in appearance or location
• persistant over time and with change of position
What percentage of abscesses have gas in them?
15-30 %
What is emphysematous pyelonephritis?
• an abnormal gas oultine on the kidney
• air in the perirenal space is because bacteria has destroyed the kidney and produced air in the perirenal space
What is pneumobilia?
• air in the common bile duct
• on x-ray, biliary tract is outlined by air
• can be caused by a gallstone that allows air into the biliary tract after leaving through the sphincter of Oddi
What is portal vein gas and how does it look on an abdominal x-ray?
• portal vein gas is due to air in the portal veins
• appears more in the periphery of the liver
• caused by mucosal breakdown that allows air to enter the portal vein
• on x-ray, peripheral lines are seen in the liver
What are some abnormal calcifactions seen on xray?
• stones like renal calculi, cholelithiasis, bladder calculi, and appendiciolth
• vascular calcifications such as aneurysm, atherosclerosis, AAA
• pancreatic or chronic pancreatitis can lead to stones in the pancreas
• leiomyoma (uterine fibroid)
• tumor calcification
• other (full term fetus)
Why are gallstones seen in only 10-15% of xrays?
• most gallstones do not have enough calcium to be seen
• gallstones are principally comprised of cholesterol and lecithin
What other abnormalities are visible on a flat film?
• metabolic disease
• arthritis
• trauma/fractures
Give 3 examples of fractures injury underlying soft tissue
• a fracture of the left lower ribs may damage the spleen
• a fracture of the transverse process of a lumbar vertebra may damage the ureter
• a fracture of the pelvis may tear the urethra and/or rupture the bladder
What contrast studies are used to evaluate the upper GI and what do they assess?
• generally both single contrast and air contrast is used
• performed using fluoroscopy to assess motility, contour, obstruction, and abnormalities of the lumen
Where are 2 places where you'll have an apple core lesion?
Colon and esophagus
What is enteroclysis?
• a fluoroscopic xray of the small intestine
• barium injected through a small tube into the duodenum and images are taken in real time as the contrast moves through
What is the most common location for Crohn's disease?
ileal-ceccal junction
What is ERCP?
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreaticogram
What is a HIDA scan?
• hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan (aka cholescintigraphy)
• tests for cholecystitis if unable to diagnose with ultrasound
• used to diagnose obstruction of the bile duct, disease of the gallbladder, and bile leaks
What is the most common cause of dysphagia?
hiatal hernia with GERD
What is odynophagia?
pain with swallowing
What is the diagnostic test of choice after a blunt trauma to the abdomen?
CT scan