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247 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the four theories of social development?
-psychoanalytic: Freud and Erikson
-Learning (behaviorist)
-Social Cognitive
How does psychoanalytic view the image of child's nature
-individual is tossed around by many forces, both internal and external, that he cannot control
-individual has little control over developmetn
What central issues does the psychoanalytic theory touch upon?
-discontinuity (stages)
-source of indivdual differences (parenting or environment)
-nature and nurture (biology makes us similiar: instinictive drives)
What are the lasting contributions from the psychoanalytic view?
-role of early experience
-role of unconscious
-came out of favor because tenets are untestable
Freud's Theory
-individual's psychic energy is focused in different erogenous zones
-needs of each stage must be met for successful development
Psychic energy
-biologically bases, instinctual drives that motivate behavior, thought, and feelings
Erogenous Zones
-areas that are erotically sensitive
-mouth, anus, and genitals
Structure of Personality
-over five stages, three personality structures develo
-rational and logical
-channels needs of ID
-controls behavior on basis of what is right and wrong
-controls actions of Ego
Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development
1.Oral Stage: first year
2.Anal Stage: 1-3 years
3.Phallic Stage: 3-6 years
4.Latency Period: 6-12 years
5.Genital Stage: 12+ years
Oral Stage
-main drive = hunger
-mouth is erogenous zone
-only have Id
-ego develops later in first year
How does the Id operate during the oral stage?
-"pleasure principle"
-wants what it wants
How does the Ego that develops later in the first year operate?
-"reality principle"
-has to deal with world in order to satisfy need of Id
-plans for satisfying demands of Id
-becomes individual's sense of self
Anal Stage
-pleasure from defecation
-emergence of self-control
-conflict with parents begins (want to control where/when defecation happens, ie potty trainings)
-if too strict/controlling child becomes anal retentive or anal explosive
Phallic Stage
-psychic energry migrates to genitalia
-masturbation emerges and is punished by parents
-superego emerges from internalization of parent's standards
-moral sense developes
Latency Period
-sexual urges hidden in unconcsious
-psychic energy channeled into acceptable pursuits (sports, collection, etc)
Genital Stage
-sexual energy emerges and is directed toward opposit-sex peers
-ego can cope with reality
-superego is not too strong or too weak
What can go wrong according to Freud?
-if child's fundamental needs are not met in a stage, child can become fixated on those needs
Example of something going wrong in Freud's stage theory
-inadequate oral gratification: substitutes like nail-biting, overeating, smoking
-harsh toilet training: anal retentive (too controlling) or anal explosive (too lax)
Erikson: Psychosocial Development
-each stage must be successfully passed
-each stage has a "crisis"
-eight stages
Erikson: Stage 1
1. Basic Trust vs Mistrust (0-1)
-ability to trust others established
-learn generally needs will be met, be taken care of
Erikson: Stage 2
2. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
-1 to 3.5 years
-must achieve self-control without loss of self-esteem
-loss of self-esteem would be letting someone else control
Erikson: Stage 3
3. Initiative vs Guilt
-4 to 6 years
-developing drive to achive goals and meet parents' rules and standards without fear of failure
Erikson: Stage 4
4. Industry vs Inferiority
-6 to puberty
-working on skills and relationships leads to confidence or inferiority
Erikson: Stage 5
5. Identity vs Role Confusion
-adolescence to early adulthood
-resolving child and emerging adult
-finding out who we "really are"
-four possible outcomes
What are the four outcomes from Erikson's stage 5
-Moratorium: prolonged period of figuring out what to do (try out many identities)
-Foreclosure: give up choosing identity and let someone else choose it
-Diffusion: wandering aimlessly
Learning Theories (behaviorism)
-view child not active
-nature/nurture: experience is important
-everything is learned (based upon experience)
-own drives/predispositions don't play much of a role
-individual differences: experience
-mechanisms of change: observation and reinforcement
Watson: Behavorism
-behaviors instead of mental states
-experience is so important that it will override any predispositions
-parenting advice: schedules
Little Albert
-Watson: behavoirism
-fear has basis in classical conditioning (paired with some adverse stimuli)
-lives on in systematic desensitization to phobias
Skinner: Learning Theory
-learning is operant conditioning
-behavior is sum of reinforcement history
-lives on as parenting advice: don't give in to bids for attention and behavior modification
Social Learning: Bandura
-where do behaviors come from?
-observation and imitation: "modeling"
-reinforcement isn't neccessary
-don't need actual reinforcement, enought to see other do behavior and get reward or punishement
-larger role for child's own dispositions: reciprocal determinism
Reciprocal Determinism
-Bandura's concept that child-environment influences operate in both directions
-children are affected by aspects of their environment, but they also influence the environment
Reciprocal Determinism
-every child has characteristics that lead him or her to seek particular kinds of interactions with the external world
-the child is affected by these interaction in ways that influence the kinds of interactions he or she seeks in the future
Bandura's Bobo Studies
-study of vicarious reinforcement, but also modeling in general
What happened in the bobo studies?
-children viewed aggressive behaviors toward Bobo doll
-adults in film were rewarded, punished, or neither
-children were give chance to interact with doll (spontaneous behavior)
-then offered reward to produce observed behavior
Bobo Studies: Results
-all learned aggressive behavior
-more spontaneous violence for reward or neutral groups
-in all groups. they learned the specific aggressive behaviors by observation (incentive)
Theories of Social Cognition
-child is active processor of social information
-limited by cognitive abilities
-child is active and has role in shaping own development (ie how child thinks about the world)
Central Developmental Issues and Theories of Social Cognition
-both continuity and discontuintiy theories exist
-individual differences are caused by differences in cognition
3 Theories of Social Cognition
1. Selman (inspired by Piaget)
2. Dodge (influenced by information-processing theories)
3. Dweck (influence by information-processing theories)
Selman's Theory
-viewpoints of others are essential to social understanding
-four stage in development of role taking (taking someone else's POV)
Selman's 4 Stages
1.realize that other people have different POVs due to different information (6-8 yrs)
2.see from another's POV (8-10 yrs) others' POV, third party view (10-12 yrs)
4.see an object POV, fairness (12+ yrs)
How is Selman influenced by Piaget?
-egocentric until age 6 (fail the 3 mountains task)
-can't take someone else's POV
-as children assess a situation and solve social problems, they us preexisting knowledge, concepts, and attitudes
Dodge and Information Processing
-interpret social cues
-formulate goal
-generate strategies
-evaluate likely success
-enact behavior
According to Dodge, what are the characteristics of children who get along well with peers?
-interpret social cues accurately
-formulate goals that enhance relationships
-have a repertiore of effective problem-solving strategies
How are children with peer difficulties
-often hold biased social expectations
-consequently they attend selectivelt to social cues and misinterpret behavior
According to Dodge how do aggressive children respond to ambigious social scenarios?
scenario: peer bumps into lunch table, spilling food, and says "oops"
-interpret behavior as accident or hostile act
-aggressive children have a hostile attributional bias
-aggressive response, vicious cycle
Dweck: Self-attributions and achievement motivation
-in responding to failure, some children show:
1.helpless pattern
2.mastery-oriented pattern
Helpless Pattern: Cognition
-blame selves
-do not persist
-ability is a fixed trait, an entity
-focus on outcome rather than process
-assume failure due to lack of intelligence
-success due to luck (or higher entity)
-give up
Mastery-Oriented Pattern: Cognition
-do not blame selves
-increase effort to succeed
-intrinsic desire to learn
-failure (and success) due to modifiable factors
-incremental view of ability (changeable)
-focus on process
-believe they can succeed if they keep trying
Helpless Pattern: Attribution
-success due to luck and failure due to low ability
-ability is fixed and can't be improved through effort
-low expectancy of success
-performance is task/goal
-lack of metacognitive and self-regulatory skills
-avoidance of challenging tasks
Mastery-Oriented Pattern: Attribution
-success due to high ability and failure due to low effort or difficult task
-ability can be improved through effort
-high expectancy of success
-learning is task/goal
-effective metacognitive and self-regulatory skills
-persistance at challenging tasks
Origins of Achievement Motivation
-develop helpless orientation from tendency to evaluate self on outcome (ie grades)
-may come from adult's reactions
-children look to adults for approval starting around 2 years
Parent/Teacher Advice for Orienation
-focus on behavior instead of trait
-"you did a bad thing" vs "you are a bad boy"
-"you must have worked hard" is better than "you must be smart"
-not just a correlation: studies have shown changes in teacher reactions can change students' orienation
Summary of Social Cognitive Theories
-children actively seek information about the social world
-outcome depends on children's interpretation or construal of events, not just the events themselves
-little to say about biology
Ecological Theories: two approaches
-Bronfenbrenner's bioecological world
-ethological/evolutionary theories
-all larger context
-considers the influence of ALL aspects of the environment, including fabric of society
-bidirectional effects
-personal relationships
-family, peers, school, etc
-connections among microsystem
-interconnection/relationship of things in the microsystem
-positive relationship has postive effect on development while negative relationship hinders and has neg effect on development
-setting that children are not directly a part of but that still influence their development
-neighbors, media, extended family, neighbors, legal service, etc.
-larger context of society
-broad ideology, laws, and customs of one's culture, sub-culture or social class
-changes in cultural over time
-changes in person or environment over time
-study of natural animal behavior
-focus on behaviors with biological origin
-behaviors now (why and how happen)
Evolutionary Theories
-still study natural animal behavior (focus on behavior) BUT
-focus of adaptiveness of behavior in "era of evolutionary adaptiveness"
-sometimes there is a mismatch between adaptiveness of behavior then versus now
Ideas of Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
-Bjorklund: prolonged childhood is consequence of selection for big brain
-born in immature state and develop during childhood resulting in need for parenting (attachment)
Idea of Evolutionary Developmetnal Psychology Con't
-play is a way to learn and practice
-new social relationships develope due to prolonged childhood
-intense parental investment
Parental Investment Theory (Trivers)
-organisms act in ways that preserve their genes
-value own life over others'
-value lives of relative over non-relatives
-willing to devote resources to offspring in order to perpetuate genes
What is the darkside of parental investment theory
-infanticide: have trouble with own survival and can't put resources into offspring
What conflicts does parental investment theory present?
-sibiling rivarly: fight over resources
-pregnancy as battle: fetus wants resources, mother's body doesn't want to give them up
-step father is 500 times more likely to kill child between ages of 0-2 than biological father
Ecological Theories Summary
-view of child as product of culture or product of evolution
-central development issues are nature/nurture and sociocultural context
Psychoanalytic and Central Issues
-Nature: urges
-Nurture: parents
-Active Child: not so active
-Mechanisms: Drives (psychic
-Source of Individ.Differences:
Learning and Central Issues
-Nature/Nurture: environment
-Active Cild: not so active
-Mechanism: EMPHASIZED
reinforcement; modeling
-Source of Individ.Differences:
different experiences
Social Cognitive and Central Issues
-Nature/Nurture: mostly nurture
-Active Child: yes; schemas and
-Mechanism: schemas
-Sociocultural Context:
-Individ. Differences:
different construals
Bioecological and Central Issues
-Nature/Nurture: nurture for
sure, nature?
-Active Child: interactions
-Sociocultural Context:
Individ. Diff.: experience?
Evolutionary and Central Issues
-Nature/Nurture: mostly nature
-Active Child: not so active
-Mechanisms: genes, culture
-Individ Diff: cultural
Mischel's Task
-delay gratification
-young school age children (5-6)
-get one treat right away or wait and get two
-distract self: delay grat.
-emotional and cognitive components
-"emotional intelligence"
What can Mischel's task predict?
-children who waited had higher academic and social competence
-higher SATs
-less likely to use drugs
-more self-regulated and successful as adults
What are the components of emotional development?
-display (control of display)
-regulation (change emotion)
Basic Emotions
-universal, present in other primates
-associated with characteristic facial expressions
Self-Conscious emotions
Origins of Emotions (emotional expression)
-6 basic emotions may develop over time
-infants express changes rapidly so its hard to tell emotion
-intially there may be a 3 way distinction
-differeniate based on experience
What is the possible intial 3-way distinction of emotions?
Positive Emotions
1. joy/pleasure/interest

Negative Emotions (controversial whether they are subdivided)
2. anger/frustration
3. wariness/fear
*don't see sadness yet
How do we know what emotions infants experience?
-all we have to go on is facial expression
Emergence of Positive Emotions
-first smiles are biological (not a response but internal): 4 weeks
-social smiles: 2-3 months (repsonse to external)
-laughter: 3-4 months (in response to control)
-smile to familiar people: 7 mo
Emergence of Negative Emotions
-generalized distress in infancy
-2 months: anger, sadness(?), and distress may have different facial expressions
-negative emotions are clear after first year
How predicitable are negative emotions?
-not consistent or predictable
-same situation may evoke different emotions in same child
-unexpected responses in 10-12 mo olds
Fear/Distress in Infancy
-not reliably distinguished in newborns
By 7 months:
-stranger anxiety
-novelty, loud noises, etc
-separation anxiety
Anger/Sadness in Infancy
-obvious after first year
-frustration, loss of control, seperation
-sadness is rare
Development of Self-Concious Emotions
-take more time to develope because have cognitive issues
-emerge after first birthday
Requires knowing:
-some theory of mind
-others' emotions
-norms of behavior
Emotional Perception
-after 6 mo: emotional contagion
-4 to 7 mo: recognize changes in expression
-7 to 10 mo: prefer videos with matching voice and expression
-8 to 12 mo: social referencing
-3 yrs: label some emotions
-remainder appear gradually in early school yrs
Emotional Contagion
-imitate facial expressions
-catch others' emotions
How do 7 to 10 month olds recognize changes in expressions?
-visual cliff studies
-won't cross cliff if mom shows fear
-will cross cliff if mom shows happiness
Social Referencing
gauge off of others' emotions
Emotional Display Rules
-cultural norms of expressing emotion
-not just ability to show emotions but display and modification
-learning where and when to mask the emotions
-masking develops over preschool and early elementary years
Why do we mask true emotions?
-prosocial: protect feelings of others (ie want to laugh when friend falls but don't b/c know it will hurt their feelings)
-self protective
How do infants control display of their emotions to match social norms?
-by 18 months infants use fewer muscles in face (less of face) to express emotions
-modified to match social norms
-clearly learned: cultural difference
What is emotional display related to?
-cognitive development
-correlated with Piagetian pre-operational and concrete operational tasks
What does emotional display lead to the learning of?
-leads to understanding of false expressions in others
Emotional Regulation
-change way you feel
-controlling subjective experience and display of emotion as well as physiological, physical, and cognitive correlates
-slow to develop
What is emotional regulation important for?
-important for social competence
-skills to achieve personal goals in social interactions while maintaining positive relationships
Development of Emotional Regulation
1. shift from caregiver to self-regulation
2. cognitive strategies
3. selection of appropriate regulatory strategies
Shift from caregiver to self-regulation
-initially adults provide distraction and soothing (infants can't regulate own emotions)
-by 6 mo have self-soothing and looking away (behavorial strategies)
-gradually become better at strategies for distracting selves
Cognitive Strategies
-mental distraction: think about something else
-recasting situation: see situation in different light
Selection of Appropriate regulatory strategies
-when is it most effective
-based on experience and reasoning
-improves with age
-infant personality
-emotional, motor, and attentional reactivity and self-regulation
-delay of gratification qualities pushed back to infancy
Why study temperament?
-basis of emotional development
-basis in biology and genes
How is temperament of question of individual difference?
-quantify individual differences
-stability of individual differences
-temperament and adjustment
-causes of individual differences
Quantifying Individual Differences
-several research groups have defined the minimal dimensions (characteristics) of componenets of temperament
Rothbart and Bates Dimensions
-6 characteristics by which infant temperament can be grouped
-assesed by parent report
1.fearful distress
2.irritable distress
3.attention span and persistence
4.activity level
5.positive affect
6.rhythmicity (regularity)
Fearful Distress
-distress, withdrawal in new situations
-time to adjust
-immediate reaction to new situation and how well adjust to it
Irritable Distress
-anger/frustration at thwarted goals
-fussiness, anger, frusturation for thwarted goals
Attention Span and Persistence
-duration of orienting toward object or events of interest
Positive Affect
-smiling, laughter, approach to people, cooperativeness and manageability
Behavorial Inhibition
-longitudinal study
-taps into 2 of Bates dimensions
-combination of dimensions
-fearful distress and postive affect
Kagan's study: behavorial inhibition
-behavorial response to unfamiliar toys and people in lab; medical procedures; peer groups
-look at physiological response
Kagan's Classifications
-20% of babies were easily upset by novelty (inhibited or shy, "high reactive")
-40% were comfortable and excited by new experience (unhibited or social, "low reactive")
Physiological Basis: Inhibited vs Unhibited Children
Inhibited/high reactive children have:
-higher sitting heart rate
-higher saliva cortisol level (resting)
-greater pupil dilation and blood pressure (fear repsonse)
-greater amygdala response, arousing sympathetic nervous system
-greater activity in right frontal cortext than left frontal cortex
Stability of Individual Differences
-Do children retain their temperatments over development?
Thomas and Chess
-three types of children
1. Easy Children
2. Difficult Children
3. Slow-to-warm-up Children
Easy Children
-regulare routines (high rhythmicity)
-cheerful (high positive affect)
-adaptable (low fearful distress)
Difficult Children
-irregular routines (low rhythmicity)
-slow to accept new experiences (high fearful distress)
-react negatively and intensely (high fearful distress and low positive affect)
Slow-to-warm-up children
-inactive (low activity)
-low-key reactions to environment
-negative mood (low positive affect)
-adjusts slowly to new experiences (high fearful distress)
Stability of Thomas and Chess's findings
-70% of difficult children developed behavior problems by school age
-18% of easy children developed such problems
-50% of slow to warm up children showed adjustment problems in middle school
Stability of Kagan/behavioral inhibition
-longitudinal (infancy to age 4)
-30% of children in extreme groups retained their temperament styles
Temperament and Adjustment
-what are the consequences of temperament style?
Outcome of negative, unregulated children
As adolescents:
-more problems getting along with others
-more likely to engage in illegal behaviors, get in trouble with the law
As Adults
-little social support network
-prone to anxiety
Outcome of behaviorally inhibited children
-prone to depression, phobias, social withdrawal at olderr age
Kagan findings on outcome of high reactives
-timid and socially anxious
-report concerns with unfamiliar situations, meeting strangers, not knowing the future
Kagan Findings on outcome of low reactive children
-sociable, spontaneous
-report concerns about failure in school, athletic field, or stage
-more concrete concerns
Outcome low/high reactive children and Religion
-surveyed subjects on attendance of religious service, awarding power to spiritual force, and praying regularly
-47% of high reactive were religious
-20% of low reactive were religious
-18% of high reactive were more religious than parents
"Goodness of Fit" model (Thomas and Chess)
-creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning
-adjust parenting
-2 children with same temperament can have different outcomes due to parenting
(same temp. + diff. pareting = different outcomes)
Causes of Individual Differences
-environmental effects relationship with parents
2.emotional expression in parents related to/also seen in children
3.parental dismissiveness
Secure Relationship with Parents is related to....
-more positive emotion (higher in positve affect)
-less social anxiety
-better understandig of emotion in others
-more open and honest in emotional expression
Why is emotional expression in parents related to positive or negative also seen in children?
-modeling of display as well as verbalization of emotions
-belief that most people are happy/angry
-positive affect parents results in children showing more positive affect and vice versa
Parental Dismissiveness is related to...
-lower sympathy, poorer stress-coping, negative emotions, aggression
-associated with lower social competence
-don't have model (low sympathy)
-support and help with emotional regulation and expression associated with higher peer and academic competence
What's wrong with enviromental affects picture?
-evocative effect
-heritable effect (genetics)
Evocative Effect
-evoke certain emotions from parents
-active child concept
-when child is happier, it makes the parent happier and in turn have better treatment
Genetics of Temperament
-strong heritability
-difference is shown to be caused by some genetic role as well
Behavior genetic quantities
-36% of individual difference in temperament can be explained by genetic differences
-heritability is more influential than shared environment
-non-shared environment appears more influential than either
Why is non-shared environment important? (3 possibilties)
-nurture assumption
-same parents create different environments for different children
-random factors (not systematic differences)
The Nurture Assumption
-home environment doesn't matter
-non-shared factors are peers
-peers make differences among individuals
-emotional bond with a specific person that is enduring across space and time
-love, positive feelings
-strong significance
-forming close emotional bonds during infancy may affect how form relationships throughout life
Background on Attachement
-orphanages and war-time seperations
-children seperated from parents did not do well
-negative affect, depression, anxiety
Is source of attachment feeding or comfort?
-big question: how does attachment happen
-Learning/Social Learning
-Spitz studie/orphanages
Spitz/Orphanage studies
-in generally, good conditions but children still failed to thrive
-needs were meant but still couldn't form emotional bonds
Harlow's Monkeys
-test: seperation of feeding and comfort
-is feeding source of comfort or is it physical
-feeding vs comfort
-wire mesh "mother" with bottle vs terrycloth (comfort) "mother"
Results of Harlow's Monkeys
-comfort overwhelms all other variables
-satisfying hunger wasn't source of love
-further tests showed in stressful situations terrycloth was comforting while mesh wasn't
-ethological perspective
-inspired by imprinting (duck example)
-behaviors exist for a purpose (highly adaptive)
Basis of Bowlby's Theory
-child-parent bond evolved as a way of ensuring child's care and safety (child's taken care of)
-child has set of inborn behaviors that ensure closeness of parent
Bowlby's Four Phases of Attachment
1. Preattachment Phase
2. Attachment in the making
3. Clear-cut attachment
4. Formation of Reciprocal relationships
Preattachment Phase
-birth to 6 weeks
-signals and behaviors ot keep mother nearby (grasping, smiling, crying, gazing into eyes)
-no distress with an unfamiliar adults
Attachment in the Making
-6 weeks to 6-8 months
-preference for mother
-develop trust/anticipation
-no stranger anxiety or seperation anxiety yet
Clear-Cut Attachment
-6-8 months to 18-24 months
-seperation anxiety (universal, peaks around 16 months)
-protest on parent's departure, follow parent
-secure base behavior and social referencing
-greet parent, actively seek contact
Formation of Reciprocal Relationship
-18-24 months and up
-understanding of comings and goings, goals and motives
-seperation protest declines
-negotiation to keep parent present
According to Bowlby if all goes well...
-child develops an enduring tie (attachment)
-internal working model
Internal Working Model
-mental representation of relationship between self and caregiver
-guides children's interactions with caregivers and other people in infancy and at older ages
-foundation of future relationship
Measuring Attachment: The Strange Situation (Ainsworth)
-theory behind it:
attachment should result in secure base behavior, separation anxiety, stranger anxiety, and ability to be comforted by caregiver
-1 to 2 years of age
-should be able to observe behaviors experimentally
Measuring Attachment: The Procedure
1.experimenter introduces parent and baby to playroom and then leaves
2.parent is seated while baby plays with toys (parent as secure base)
3.stranger enters, is seated, talks to parent (reaction to unfamiliar adult)
Procedure Con't
4.parent leaves room. stranger responds to baby and offers comfort if upset (separation/stranger anxiety)
5.parent returns, greets baby and offers comfort if neccessary. stranger leaves room (reaction to reunion)
6.parent leaves room (separation anxiety)
Procedure Con't
7.stranger enters room and offers comfort (ability to be soother by stranger)
8.parent returns, greets baby, offer comfort if necessary, and tried to reinterest baby in toys (reaction to reunion)
Ainsworth's Findings
-4 patterns of attachment attachment
3.insecure-resistent attachment
4.insecure-disorganized / disoriented attachment
Secure Attachment
-use parent as secure base
-may cry when parent leaves
-prefer parent to stranger
-upon reunion, actively seek contact and reduce crying
-unresponsive to parent when present
-not distressed when parent leaves
-treat stranger same as parent
-upon reunion, avoid or slow to greet parent
-fail to cling to parent
Insecure-Resistent Attachment
-stay close to parent rather than exploring
-cry intensely upon departure
-at reunion, display angry, resistive behavior
-not easily comforted by parent
Secure Base Behavior
-use mother as source of comfort to explore world
-go to new place, use mom for comfort (allievate anxiety), explore
Insecure-Disorganize/Disoriented Attachment
-no consistent way of dealing with stress of situation
-at reunion, show variety of confused, contradictory behaviors
-may cry unexpectedly after being clamed down
-conflict: want to approach mother but regard her as source of fear
Contradictory Behaviors of insecure-disorganize/disoriented attachment
-look away while being held -approach with flat
-depressed expression
Patterns of Attachment: American Children Stats
-secure attachment: 65%
-insecure attachment: 20%
-insecure-resistent: 10-15%
-insecure-disorganized/ disoriented: <5%
Factors that Affect Attachment
-quality of care
-child's temperament
-orphanage study: after removal from mothers, babies showed variety of physical and emotional problems if they did not have a consistent caregiver
Opportunity: Critical Period
-even in apparently high quality orphanages, high staff turnover
-still able to develop close relationships with parents if adopted by age 4-6
-British study of children adopted from Romania
Opportunity: Difficulties adopted children had later
-excessive desire for adult attention
-overfriendliness to strangers
-little social referencing
-few friendships
Quality of Care
-sensitive caregiver
-parents of aviodant infants tend to be intrusive and overstimulating OR emotionally unavaible
-resistant infants tend to receive inconsistent care
-disorganized attachment associated with fear of parents; abuse
Sensitive Caregiving
-responding appropiately, consistently, and warmly to baby's needs
Does Child Care Affect Attachment?
-working mothers
-NICHD Early Child Care Research Network
Working Mothers
-60% of mothers of infants work
-daily separations
-interacting with other people
-group care
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network
-slightly higher rate of insecure attachment compare to control group (36% vs 20%)
Quality of care:
-small ratio (1:3 infants, 1:6 toddlers)
-developmentally appropriate toys
-sensitive care
-consistent caregivers
Cultural Variations in Attachment
-secure attachment is most common pattern throughout world BUT
-in Germany, lareger percentage of avoidant attachment
Long-term implications of children who were securely attached as infants
-better relationships with peers
-more regulated, sociable, and socially competent
-better emotional understanding
-more prosocial behavior
-less aggressive and anti-social
-have higher academic achievement, more involved at school
What causes these results for securely attached infants
-attachment in infancy or continuing parenting characteristics?
What are the two key factors of parentin?
-control: undemanding to very demanding
-warmth: cold to loving
Diana Baumrind's classic research on parenting
-conducted large studies observing children's behaviors and relating them to parenting styles measure through observations and interviews
-77% of parents fits into one of four basic patterns
Four Categories of Parenting
1. Authoritative: warm/demanding
2. Authoritarian: cold/demanding
3. Permissive-Indulgent: warm and permissive
4. Rejecting-Neglecting: cold and permissive
-had authoritarian family (with some authoritative characterisitcs) and permissive-indulgent family
Authoritarian Parents
-firm enforcement of rules (clear expectations)
-show anger and displeasure
-view child as basically antisocial
-child's opinion typically not considered
-often harsh punishement
-little positive support
-limited shared activities
Children of Authoritarian Parents
-fearful and apprehensive
-moody and unhappy
-passively hostile
-vulnerable to stress
-at risk for depression
-alternate between aggression and withdrawal
-difficult adolescence (rebellion/depression)
Permissive-Indulgent Parents
-rules not enforced
-rules not clearly communicated
-yield to coercion, nagging, whining
-few expectations for mature behavior
-hide impatience or anger
-ignore or accept bad behavior
-generally emotionally warm and loving
Children of Permissive-Indulgent Parents
-impulsive and aggressive
-low in self-reliance
-lacking in self-control
-quick to anger
-often domineering
Rejecting-Neglecting Parents
-sometime leads to reportable abuse/neglect
Children of Rejecting-Neglecting Parents
-infants: disturbed attachment relationships
-anti-social behavior
-poor self-regulation
-internalizing problems
-substance abuse
-risky behaviors
-low academic and social competence
Authoritative Parents
-rules and expectations are appropriate for age and ability of child
-rules are clearly communicated
-firm enforcement of rules
-does not yield to coercion
-considers child's wishes and solicits opinions
-warm, involved, responsive
-participates and values joint activities
-promotes positive self regard
-educational standards set and enforced
Children of Authoritative Parents
-cheerful and happy
-copes well with stress
-cooperative with adults and other children
-achievement oriented
-generally popular with peers
Function of Family
-complex set of interacting relationships
-economic/emotional support
-socialization (first body to teach you about culture/society)
-family system theory
-ecological factors: neighborhood, school, church, friends
Family System Theory
-family members are seen as interdependent
-all inter-related or interconnected
-what affects one member affects all (ie losing job)
Family: Socialization
-first and primary context for learning about the world
-direct instruction (parents teach you skills, rules, and strategies)
-indirect instruction (modeling)
-social managers (parents are incharge of social world: appts or play dates)
What impacts/influencs parenting?
-child factors
-socioeconomic status/economic stress
Child Factors
-age of child: treat infant different than teen (different techiniques)
-bidirectionality (active child): whiney temperament affects parenting
Socioeconomic Status
-low SES parents more likely to use authoritarian parenting style
-complex relationship though due to education, neighborhood differences, and co-occuring economic stressors
-parenting practices have different meanings in different cultures (chinese: authoritarian)
African Americans and Parenting
-authoritarian parenting isn't negatively associated with African Amer. girls (not negative outcome)
-more normal in culture (how child views it)
-environment (adaptive)
Differences between maternal and paternal parenting
-new area of research
-early work focused on father absence, paternal environment, and caregiving activities
Daily household chores and caregiving
-working woman: 1.4 hrs chores and 1.5 hrs caregiving
-working man: 40 min chores, 44 mins caregiving
Father's involvement in parenting
-accessibility: being avaible
-interaction: direct contact with child
-responsibility: child is taken care of
Research Results of Father's Involvement
-fathers has less interaction and responsibility as compared to mothers
-fathers spend more time with sons than daughters
-fathers = playmates
-fathers role is less scripted
Parenting Quality
-early research with parenting style conducted with mothers and children
-recent work has found similiar relationships between authoritative parenting in fathers and positive child outcomes
Unique Father Contribution
-fathers engage in more play with child than mothers
-through play teach socialization, autonomy, and regulation of emotions
-play is usually rough and tumble
-positive relationship between paternal play and children's social competence
Historical Changes in Family Dynamic
-family structure: divorece, out of wedlock births, singel parent houses
-age of parents (getting older before having children)
-maternal employment (18%-64%)
-lesbian and gay parents
Divorce: stats and child outcome
-50% of marriages end in divorce of which 50% involve children and 66% remarry
-more likely to experience depression, lower self-esteem, and be less socially competent
-boys prone to higher levels of externalizing behaviors
Factors Affecting Impact of Divorce
-parental conflict: dads withdrawal usually more from child
-age of child
-contact with noncustodial parent
-pre-existing characteristics
-6% of US children live in household with a step parent
-80% of these households contain a step father
Child Adjustment in Stepfamilies
-adjusment of children from divorced-single parent families and step-families are similiar
-lower social competenc, lower academics, externalizing behavior
What factors are unique to step-families that should be considred
-age of child at remarriage
-relationship with step-parent (est. relationship first before enforcing rules)
-child gender
-boys get along better with step-parent than girls
-relationship between biological parent and step-parent
Moral Development
-what's right and wrong
-where superego begins (phallic stage..identify with same-sex parent)
-background: inspired by Piaget
-two stages
-cognitive based theory of moral development
-before 5 no moral reasoning
-Heinz dilemia
Two stages
1.heteronomous/constraint/ages 5-11:
-learn rules by all external (not internalizing rules)
2.autonomous/restraint/age 11 and up:
-internal rules
Kohlberg's Stages
-6 stages
-3 levels
-universal and invariant
-where you are is determined by reasoning not answer to Heinz dilemia
Structure of levels/stages
Level 1: Preconventional
-stage 1 & 2
Level 2: Conventional
-stage 3 & 4
Level 3: Postconventional
-stage 5 & 6
Level 1: Preconventional
-haven't learned all of the rules
-stage 1: focus on fear of authority (external morality)
-stage 2: authority trumped by personal needs
Level 2: Conventional
-should follow rules because holds society together
-maintain social fabric (even within family)
-stage 3: social order on a personal level
-stage 4: general social order
Level 3: Postconventional
-had to answer yes
-move beyond unquestioning support of laws
-stage 5: laws are flexible
-stage 6: conscience superceds law (above law)
Progression through Kohlberg's stages
-not everyone makes it to sixth stage
-pre-adolscent males: preconventional
-adol. males: conventional
-18-20 yr old males: out of stage 1 and usually in stages 4 or 5
-less than 10% of males make it stage 5
Modern thinking on Kohlberg
-consistency of moral decisions
-sex differences
-men value justice and individual rights
-women value caring, responsibility for others, and avoiding hurting others
Prosocial Behavior
-voluntary behavior intending to benefit another, such as helping, sharing, and comforting others
Prosocial Behavior: Individual Differences
-variety of differences withint same age group
-developmental time course: 24 months is turning point
Fostering Prosocial Behavior
1. Socialization
2. Biology
Prosocial Behavior: Socialization
-modeling: social learning theory
-explicit discussion
-parenting style
-intervention work (explicit discussion of others feelinging)
Explicit Discussion
-including others' feelings, not right or wrong
-fosters internalization
-causation not just correlation with fostering prosocial behavior
Parenting Style
-authoritarian style leads to lack of sympathy
-punishement for not acting prosocial and rewards for acting prosocial don't change child's cognition
-reasoning about feelings of others most effective, esp within warm relationships with parents
Prosocial Behavior: Biological Influences
-could altruism be consistent with evolutionary theory?
-reciprocal altruism and helping kin
-found modest heritability using twin studies of adults and children
-environment can really play a big part
Anitsocial Behavior
-behavior that is hurtful or apathetic (unsympathetic) towards others, such as stealing and inflicting psychological or physical harm
Antisocial Behavior: Development of Aggression
-emerges early around 18 months (get what they want)
-peaks at 24 months
-decreases as other skills and strategies emerge
-preschool conflict
-elementary school age
-most of this is normal
Preschool Conflict
-possession: instrumental aggression (physical aggression)
-relational aggression: gossip, exclusion, etc
Elementary School Age
-relational aggression continues, instrumental drops
-aggression due to hostility and self-defense increases
-covert anti-social behaviors emerge (lying, stealing, cheating)
Beyond Normal Aggression
-persistent antisocial behavior and deliquency
-causes are intertwined effects of biology and parenting
-also peers and culture
Origins of Antisocial Behavior
-biology: significant hertiability for adult antisocial behavior
-infant temperament
-preschool personality (active, impulsive, irritable)
-early attention problems, hyperactivity
Antisocial Behavior: Infant Temperament
-associated or leads to antisocial behavior
-frequent and intense negative emotion
-demanding of attention
Developmental Patterns of Antisocial Behavior
1. Early-Onset (life-course persistent)
2. Late-Onset (adolescent limited)
-children who are aggressive as youngesters tend to stay aggressive in adolescence and adulthood
-aggression + covery antisocial behavior = most at risk
-highest risk factor for criminals as adults
-normal adolescent pressures: establishment of autonomy, peer acceptance
-stops in adulthood
Beyond biology what is antisocial behavior associated with?
-aggression, criminality associated with hard discipline/ authoritarian parenting and parental conflict
Why is antisocial behavior associated with parenting?
-modeling of behavior toward child and each other
-social cognition impairments: hostile attributional bias, generate aggressive solutions to problems, expect aggression to solve problems
-lack of sympathy
Why is the causality of parenting and antisocial behavior not so straightforward?
-effect modulated by culture
-evocative effects? Correlated gene?
-gene-environment interaction (boys with one version of MAOA gene are more likely to become antisocial if exposed to harsh parenting)
Fostering Antisocial Behavior: Peers
-influence by friends and larger peer group
-perr rejection and alliance with deviant groups or individuals named in school shooting cases (violent videa games also named in some of these cases)