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245 Cards in this Set

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Characteristics determined by genetically coded info vs. observable / measurable chracteristics
genotype vs. phenotype
The upper and lower boundaries for a particular trait, established by genes, and tending to be further apart at higher levels of genetic endowment
Reaction Range
Range of intelligence is higher for groups of high-IQ kids vs. groups of low-IQ kids
A limited time span during which a person/organism is biologically prepared to acquire a b/h, but requires the presence of some environmental stimuli (vs. optimal, but not absolutely necessary, time for acquiring behavior.
Critical vs. Sensitive Periods
Think Lorenz
Genetically predetermined patterns of development that are minimallly impacted by envrionmental factors
E.g. Environment may influence when a learning to walk sequence begins, but the order of walking behavior unfolds invariably (e.g. pulling to stand, walking supported, standing alone, walking alone)
Narrow developmental paths highly resistant to environmental influence
Sensorimotor development is high on this, intelligence & personality are less so.
Difference in timing of physical changes that are found in children of different cohorts
Secular Trends
E.g. Menarche onset has decreased from 17 in 1800's to 12 or 13 recently.
The degree to which a particular characteristic can be attributed to genetic factors
Heritablity Index
e.g. kinship studies
How inheritable is intelligence (Range & Avg)
Range: .30-.70
Avg: .50
no hint - just know this
The characteristics Dark Hair, immunity to poison ivy, normal hearing, type B blood have what in common
Remember those Punnet Squares
The characteristics red hair, susceptibility to poison ivy, congenital deafness, type O blood have what in common
Punnet Squares...
Who has a greater chance of inheriting sex-linked characteristics?
They don't have homologous sex chromosomes
Example and Gender ratio of a sex-linked characteristic?
Red-Green Color blindness.
2:1 :: Male:Female
Why guys have such a hard time coordinating outfits???
4 Examples of Recessive disorders
PKU (phenylketonuria)
Sickle-Cell Anemia
Cystic Fibrosis
Diet-related MR, Jewish, Black, Nebulizers
Recommended tx for PKU?
adhere to diet low in phenylalanine during first 6-9 years of life. Includes eggs, milk, fish, bread
Think diet
Example of Dominant Genetic d/o and its transmission rate?
Huntington's Chorea
Think neurological
Down Syndrome: Symptoms
1 moderate to profound MR
2 Physical features (short, stocky build, flattened face, protruding tongue, almond shaped eyes)
3. Organ abnormalities (heart, thyroid, intestinal tract, respiratory infections)
Cognitive, Physical, Organ
Down Syndrome: Frequency and Risk
Overall: 1 in 800 live births
Age 20-24: 1 in 1900 births
Age 45+: 1 in 30 births
Dramatic Increase with age
Sex Chromosome Abnormalities:
1. Klinefelters Syndrome
2. Turner's syndrome
3. Fragile X syndrome
K, T, & Fx
Klinefelters Syndrome: sx and genetics
1. Males, extra X chromosome
2. Typical masculine traits in childhood, male identity, but incomplete dev't of secondary sex characteristics and often sterile
Something eXtra...
Turner's Syndrome: sx and genetics
1. Females missing all or part of second X chromosome
2. No secondary sex characteristics, sterility, short stature, stubby fingers, webbed neck
Something eXcluded...
Fragile X Syndrome: Sx and genetics
1. Weak site on X chromosome, affecting both males and females, with males showing more pronounced effects (because they don't have the normal X to compensate)
2. Moderate to severe MR, facial deformities, rapid/staccato speech rhythm
Genetics in the name
Think Cognitive, Physical, Communication sx
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model: Four Systems
1. Microsystem: child's immediate setting (family, daycare, school)
2. Mesosystem (interconnections between microsystem elements)
3. Exosystem: Parts of environment child has no direct contact with but is impacted by (i.e. parent's job)
4. Macrosystem: cultural context encompassing other systems (affecting child's development, e.g. racism, SES)
Rutter's six family risk factors
2. Large family size
3. Severe marital discord
4. parental criminality
5. maternal psychopathology
6. Outside placement of child
S, F, M, C, P, O
Risk and Protective Factors (Rutter)
1. 0-1 Risk factor: 2% risk for psychiatric d/o
4 + factors: 21% psychiatric risk
2. Few stressors after birth, easy temperament (responsivity, regular eating/sleeping patterns), and stable support from parent/substitute)
When might a teratogen have little/no effect prenatally or might kill the unborn child?
Germinal Period (conception to 8-10 days later)
Really early
During which period are the major organ systems most susceptible to teratogens?
Embryonic Period: 2nd-8th week
Not showing yet, but will miss period during this time
The CNS is most vulnerable during this period of pregnancy?
Beginning 3rd to Beginning 6th
Early in the overal period
The heart is most vulnerable during this period of pregnancy?
Mid 3rd to Mid 6th
Overlaps with CNS Vulnerability
What's vulnerable during the Fetal Period (9th week - birth)
External Genitalia, Brain
Men can often think with either
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Sx and prognosis
Growth retardation, facial deformities, microcephaly, irritability, hyperactivity, neurological abnormalities, most withy MR (IQ=65-70, avg)
Effects are irreversible. FAS leading cause of MR in USA
Think physical, temperament, cognitive
Heroin and Methadone risks for fetus
Prematurity, LBW, physical malformations, respiratory disease, mortality at birth, physical addiction / w/drawal sx
Cocaine / Marijuana risks for fetus
small head circumference, genital / urinary tract deformities, heart defects, brain seizures, abnormalities in motor devpt, irritability, difficult to console, hyperreactive to environmental stimuli, concentration, memory problems, learning disabilities, social problems (in school)
Smoking cigarettes - risks for fetus
prematurity, LBW, death at birth; hyporesponsivity, irritable, reduced school achievement, short attention span, increased motor activity in early/middle childhood
Congenital Rubella Syndrome Risks
heart defects, eye cataracts, deafness, GI anomolies, MR; 20% die shortly after birth. Most severe damage in 4-8th wk of preg
HIV Risk Reduction and estimate
Reduced risk of transmission with AZT administered in last two trimesters, and to infant in first 6 weeks of life; Else 25% risk of transmission in pregnancy (in US) and risk after birth continues if breastfeeding
HIV Risks for fetus
prematurity, increased suseptibility to other infections, failure to thrive, swollen lymph nodes, devptl delays.
Prognosis for HIV Infected infants
25% get AIDS in 1st year, 15% die. Avg age of survival: 8.5 years, but reports of kids living as long as 16 years. Childhood risk for viral, funcgal, bacterial infections, immunologic abnormalities, and CNS dysfns (loss of devptl milestones, attn/conc problems, declining IQ)
Risks of Prenatal malnutrition
Depends when it occurs and severity. 1st trimester Risks: spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations. 3rd trimester: LBW, low brain weight (fewer neurons, less dendritic branching, less myelinization), behavioral consequences (apathy, unresponsiveness, irritability, high-pitched cry, intellectual deficits, lags in motor development
Risks of maternal stress in pregnancy
Chronic, severe anxiety --> medical complications in pregnancy and more birth abnormalities. Assoc with spontaneous abortion, prematurity, LBW, resp probs, irritability, hyperactivity, sleep/eat problems.
What buffers fetus from effects of maternal stress?
Mom's access to supportive social relps
Risk and Resilience factors for prematurity
Teen motherhood, drug use, low SES, malnutrition (risk)
medical attention, supportive environment, no significant abnormalities (resilience)
Think SES (and correlates)...
What is SGA and what does it put infants at risk for?
"Small-for-gestational-age" defined as below 10th percentile of expected weight for gestational age. Risk is higher (than premature infants) for respiratory disease, hypoglycemia, and asphyxia durng birth
Size does matter...
Types of brain development between birth and adolescence
1. dendrite growth (synapse creation)
2. Myelinization (insulation of axons)
It's not creation of new neurons...
Myelinization Pattern: Timing and order of myelinization of cortical areas...
1. Primary Motor Cortex (first months of life)
2. Primary Sensory Cortex
3. Myelinization mostly complete by second year, but continues at slower pace into early adolescents.
4. May play a role in cognitive changes between ages 5 and 7.
5. At 1 year, child's brain is about 60% of its adult weight
Piaget had it right with the sensorimotor stage...
Infant Reflexes: name and define 5 infant reflexes
1. Tonic Neck: arm extends when someone turns head to one side
2. Palmar grasp: grasps finger pressed against palm
3. Babinski: Big toe extends and small toe spreads out when sole is stroked
4. Moro: drop of head or loud noise causes infant to arch back, extend legs , and throw arms forward
5. Stepping: held upright with soles of feet touching ground, infant makes stepping motions
When and why do infant reflexes disappear?
1. Six months
2. Increase in voluntary cortical control that supresses subcortical reflexes
Why don't your legs automatically get to stepping when your feet hit the ground?
How well do newborns see during first 6 months of life?
20/600 at birth
20/100 at six months
Pretty poorly...
Early landmarks in vision development:
1. Minutes to days: prefers facial to non-facial images
2. 2-3 months: full color vision
3. 6 months: some depth perception
Faces, color, depth...
Early landmarks in hearing development
1. Preference of human voice after birth
2. recognition of mom's voice (3 days)
3. Sound Localization (0-40 days, disappears between 40-100 days, reemerges at 12 months
Remember the Dr. Seuss studies?
Taste development at birth
can distinuish between four tastes, with preference for sweet
born sweet-tooth
Smell development
Respond to unpleasant odors in a few days; olfactory discrimination by 2-7 days
Olfaction is subcortical...
Early Motor Development: One Month
Gross: head turns side to side when prone
Fine: strong grasp reflex
head and hands
Early Motor Development: Three Months
Gross: holds head erect when sitting , but head bobs forward; looks at own hand
Fine: holds a rattle
head and hands again
Early Motor Development: 5 months
Gross: Head erect and steady when sitting; foot to mouth when on back
Fine: Plays with toes, objects to mouth, grasps voluntarily
Foot Discovery Time!
Early Motor Development: 7 months
Gross: Sits, tripod position
Fine: transfering objects hand to hand
Sitting, x-midline
Early Motor Development: Nine Months
Gross: creeping, pull to stand
Fine: pincer grasp
mobility begins
Early Motor Development: 11-14 months
Gross: walk with support (11); stands unsupported (13) walks unsupported (14)
Fine: Removes objects from tight enclosure (11), turns pages in book (12)
We have liftoff!
Effects of Early Training: 2 lines of research
1. X-Cult: in cultures where walking training begins a few months after birth, children walk sooner, but with no long-term outcomes for basic skills
2. One member of twin trained in complex motor activity (i.e. swimming, biking), followed by next (after first is proficient). In adolescence and adulthood, profiency is similar, but earlier trained twin has more interest and more skilled.
Different findings for basic vs. complex skills
Piaget: Process by which cognitive processes are built
one of three "a"s
Piaget: complementary processes that lead to schema formation:
Assimilation: incorporating new information in terms of existing schemas
Accomodation: changing schemas to account for new information
two fo the three "a"s
Piaget: name and describe the term that explains how processes work together in forming new cognitive schemas
equilibration: continuous movement between disequilibrium (recognizing new info doesn't fit existing schemas) and equilibrium (existing schemas account for current reality)
Piaget: When does Equilibration stop?
Trick question. Answer: NEVER
trick question...
Piaget stages: names and dates
1. Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs)
2. Preoperational (2-7 yrs)
3. Concrete Operational (7-12 yrs)
4. Formal Operational (12+ yrs)
Piaget stages: Name and define two key achievements of children in first stage
(Sensorimotor, 0-2):
1. Object Permanence: understanding that objects continue to exist even when you can't see them.
2. Deferred imitation: ability to imitate an act at a later point in time.
First steps towards symbolic thought
Piaget stages: Gains in second stage
Increase in symbolic thought
language development
substitute pretend play
sociodramatic play
unleashed from reality
Piaget: Second stage limitations
1. Egocentrim: child's inability to understand that others don't experience world in same way they do
2. Magical thinking (belief that one has control over object or events)
3. Animism (belief that objects have feelings, thoughts, etc)
4. Lack of conservation (understanding that underlying properties of object don't change just because its appearance changes.
5. Centration: tendency to focus on one detail of situation, neglecting other important aspects
6. Irreversibility: can't understand that actions can be reversed
Piaget: Third Stage Gains
Decentration, Reversibility, Conservation, transitivity (mental sorting), hierachical classification (categorize using classes and subclasses)
A lot of the limits in second stage are overcome
Piaget: In what order are properties conserved by kids in third stage
Bonus: what's the fancy term for this development?
1. number -> length -> liquid -> mass -> area -> weight -> volume
2. Horizontal Decalage
Liquid in tall and short containers is not first...
Piaget: Limitations in third stage
Processing abstract, hypothetical information
Name of the stage: "Concrete"
Piaget: Gains in 4th stage
1. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning (ability to arrive at and test alternative explanations for observed events)
2. Propositional thought: ability to evaluate logical validity without making reference to real-world circumstance
Science and logic
Adolescent Egocentrism
Belief that ideas / theories afforded by newfound powers of abstract reasoning can make the world a better place
Bordering on grandiosity...
Imaginary Audience
Characteristic of adolescent egocentrism: belief that others are as concerned with and critical of adolescent's behavior as he/she is him/herself.
Why zits are so humiliating
Personal Fable
Belief that he/she is unique and indestructable
Supports risk-taking behavior in adolescents
Research: what aspect of Piaget's theory has been confirmed?
that cognitive development occurs in an invariant sequence of stages
Just the basics
Research: what aspects of Piaget's theory have been challenged?
Childhood (pre-op)egocentrism: in certain circumstances children can recognize others' see things from another perspective
Conservation: can be taught in some cases to 3-4 year olds
Formal Op: only about 1/2 of adult population reach this stage, and many adults only use formal op thought in areas of expertise and experience
Regarding egocentrism, conservation, and formal operational stage
What's the main difference between Piaget and Vgotsky?
Piaget described universals; Vgotsky emphasized social, cultural, and historical context of cognitive devpt
One described universal series of stages...
The two levels on which learning takes place: (according to Vgotsky)
1. Between child and another person
2. Within child (incorporating others' feedback as self-regulatory statements)
Remember his social focus
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky's term for the difference between what a kid can do alone, and what he/she can do with the help from parents or more competent peers. Learning is most rapid when in this zone.
Remember the social focus
Vgotsky's term for the support provided to child by parents/more competent peers that facilitates learning
Social focus
Infantile Amnesia
Fact that adults can't remember anything that occurred prior to age 3
What it sounds like
Landmarks in memory development birth to 7
Birth: Some recognition memory
2-3 months: recall with cues
2 years: memory for events several months ago
2-7: steady increases
7 years: substantial gains
They remember more than you might think
What factors facilitate memory increases at age 7?
1. Increased STM capacity
2. consistent use of rehearsal
3. increased knowledge about things to be remembered
4. development of metamemory
cognitive / academic factors
Types of cries emitted after birth
hunger, pain, anger
the basics
Which type develops by 3 weeks of age?
cry for attention
some adults still do it!
Describe parental physiological and behavioral responses to cries
All adults respond with heart rate changes, skin conductance, and other arousal measures. Parents more so, and first time parents the most. Pain cries are more arousing than hunger or anger. Mother's most frequent and effective response is to lift baby to shoulder. Parents somewhat better at distinguishing types of cries of their own infant than cries of other babies.
Three key features of language
system of word symbols
creative within context of rules
think vocab and grammar
Define Behavioral theories of language development
describe it as result of classical, operant, and social learning. Focus on strategies that caregivers and others use to facilitate language development
How do behaviorists describe near everything?
Strategies studied by behaviorists that facilitate language development
Motherese: talking in simple sentence, slow pace, high-pitch)
Recasting (rephrasing child's sentence in different way (i.e. as question)
Ga ga goo goo !
Define Nativist theories of language development
Emphasize innate, genetically-determined factors in language learning.
Evidence for a nativist position:
Universality of some language rules, brain lateralization, and sensitive periods for language acquisition
all relate to biological nature of language
Cognitive Theories of language development: discuss
view lang devpt as part of cognitive devpt; see language devpt as motivated by child's desire to express meaning (used to express only meaning already formulated independently of language)
Language Devpt Milestones
Cooing (1-2 mths) vowel sounds
Babbling (4-6 mths): consonant-vowel combo (all languages, then narrowing at 9 mths)
First Words (10-16mts) refer to people or manipulable/mving objects, or salient events
Holophrastic Speech (12-18 mths): single word - gesture combinations / intonation to convey entire sentences
Telegraphic speech: two word sentences with most critical words
Rapid Vocabulary Growth: 30-36 mths (vocabs about 3000 words by age 3, use of simple 3-word sentences
Development of complex gramatical forms (3-6 years) use of verb "to be", negation, questioning. By age 6, connect whole sentences and verb phraces, embedded sentences, direct / indirect objects, passive voice
How does bilingualism affect kids?
perform better on tests of divergent thinking, cognitive flexibility, and metalinguistic awareness.
it's a good thing
When does bilingualism have potential risk?
If children not proficient in native language are abruptly submerged in "english only" education; "Semilingualism" - inadequate proficiency in both languages
What is "Code Switching" and when does it happen
Switching languages in a conversation. Serves to:
help when person can't find words to express himself
show minority solidarity
express attitude toward listener
both explicit and implicit messages
The bottom line on bilingual education?
High quality bilingual education results in comparable English skills, and even superior subject matter learning.
Depends on the quality of the education
Gender differences in communication?
1. Women: rhetorical ?, desitation, hedges, tag questions
2. Women interrupt more for rapport-building, though interrupt with same frequency as men
3. Men talk more than women generally, and in particular circumstances
4. In mixed dyads, men focus on "masculine" (neutral) topics, women on "feminine" topics
Style, use of certain forms, amount
How many kids have sleep problems in first few areas of life?
up to 30%, and they can become chronic if untreated
less than half, but a bit
Describe Ferber's Method
"Progressive Waiting": begin at 5-6 mths of age.
1. Establish soothing bedtime ritual
2. Put baby to bed still awake
3. Let first crying episode go on for predetermined interval (usually 5 minutes)
4. Sooth child verbally, but don't pick up)
5. Then wait for two intervals, and so forth until child is asleep
6. Most kids learn to sleep within a week
7. Don't try on kids who are highly anxious
Ah... if only it were so simple
Attachment: What did Freud say?
Attachment is a result of feeding (mom meeting infant's oral needs)
Attachment: Why was Freud Wrong?
Harlow studies - wire vs. terry cloth mothers
Bowlby's Ethological Theory
1. Mothers and infants biologically programmed for attachment
1a: infants with attachment related behaviors at birth (sucking, crying, cooing, etc)
1b. Mothers with pitch and tone modulation to enhance sensory recognition of her.
2. Babies begin to develop mental representations of self and attachment figures in first year
Define "Internal Working Models"
Mental representations of self and others, guide behavior in later relationships
Attachment Timing:
Show preference for mother over others by 4 months
Clear signs of attachment by 6-7 months
Signs of Attachment
Social Referencing
Separation Anxiety
Stranger Anxiety
Response to prolonged separation
Social Referencing
Begins about 6 months
Refers to infant using emotional reactions of caregivers to guide own behaviors
Visual Cliff Experiments
Separation Anxiety
Start at 6 months, peaks between 14 and 18 months, fades throughout preschool years.
Stranger Anxiety
Starts 8-10 months, peaks at 18 months, declines during 2nd year.
Intensity affected by situational factors (e.g. is mom nearby?)
Response to prolonged separation
Babies 15-30 months respond to extended separation with predictable sequence: protest, despair, detachment (apathy that may continue upon mom's return)
Ainsworth's Strange Situation
Infant spends time alone, time with mom, and then with stranger
Attachment Patterns
Disorganized / Disoriented
Secure attachment
1. active exploration when alone or with mom
2. Friendly with stranger, but clearly prefer mom
3. Distress when mom leaves and seek physical contact upon return

Mom's are emotionally sensitive and responsive
Anxious / Avoidant Attachment
Uninterested in environmnet
show little distress when mom leaves
avoid contact with her when she returns
may or may not be wary of strangers

Mom is either impatient and nonresponsive, or else overly responsive, involved, and stimulating
Anxious / Resistant Attachment
Anxious, even when mom iks present
Become very distressed when she leaves
Ambivalent when she returns and may attempt to resist her attempts to make contact
Wary of strangers even when mom is present.

Mom's are inconsistent in responses to child - sometimes indifferent, others enthusiastic
Disorganized / Disoriented Attachment
Conflicting responses towards mother - alternating between avoidance, resistance, and proximity seeking. B/h described as dazed, confused, apprehensive.

Often observed in children who have been maltreated
Adult Attachment Interview:
Measures intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns. Elicits details about early family life. Asked to describe relp with parents in childhood and provide specific memories to support global evaluations
Secure-Autonomous Attachment
Value attachment relationships
Secure base provided by at least 1 parent
Don't idealize / devalue parents
Integrate +/- experiences
Have kids who are securely attached.
Devalue attachment relationships
Guarded and defensive re) childhood.
Idealize parents but don't back it up.
75% of their children are anxious/avoidant attatched
Confused and incoherent in recalling attachment memories
Childhood marked by disappointment, frustrated attempts to please parents, role reversals
Remain preoccupied with fam-or-origin issues, ongoing anger and/or resignation re) problems
Most of their children have Anxious/Resistant attachments
Often in victims of severe trauma / early loss
Losses not mourned / integrated
Fear and dissociation
Often abusive and neglectful of own kids, who develop disorganized/disoriented attachments
Peer Relations: Developmental milestones
6 months: interact through smiling, gestures, vocals, touching
14 months: interact around toy play, fights over toys, affection displays
Preschool: prefer some peers over others, typically based on gender, age, and behavior
Elementary School: Peer interxns increase to point where they are more frequent than adult interxn. Gender segregation; friend chioce related to shared activities and reciprocity.
Adolescence: Gender segregation decreases; friendships based on mutual intimacy and self-disclosure (girls esp) and similarity (in interests, attitudes, values)
Peer Relations: Gender differences: Maccoby
"Enabling" (female) Style: increases intimacy and equality, characterized by expressing agreement, making suggestions, and supporting.
"Restrictive" (male) style: bragging, contradicting, interrupting
Peer Relations - Gender Differences: function of friendships
Girls: stress intimate, emotional aspects
Boys: stress sharing activites & interests
What is the most important factor contributing to popularity in childhood?
Social Behavior: skill at initiating and maintaining positive relationmships, outgoing, communicated, cooperative, non-punitive.
Other (less important) factors contributing to popuarity in childhood?
Attractiveness, physical size / maturity, intelligence, academic achievement, non-aggressive, less negative / disruptive behavior
Differences between neglected vs. Rejected peers
Rejected peers have more psychological / b/h problems
Rejected peers have wide range of problems vs. neglected just feel socially isolated
Rejected kids' problems more likely to continue into adulthood, and are more stable across time and settings
Conformity: what age range is most likely to conform?
12-14 year olds
What makes adolescents less vulnerable to peer influence?
Self-perceptions as competent and worthwhile
What types of attitudes and behaviors are most influenced by peers (vs parents?)
Peers: influence those that relate to status in peer group (i.e. dress, music)
Parents: greater effect on life decisions and values
What do Piaget and Kohlberg's theories of moral development have in common?
Both link to cognitive development
Piaget's Stages of moral development (and ages)
1. Heteronomous Morality (morality of constraint): 4-7
2. Autonomous Morality (Morality of reciprocity): 7/8+
Heteronomous Morality
Rules viewed as absolute and unchangeable
Justice is imminant
Moral judgements based on consequences
Inflexibility due to egocentrism and constraint of parental authority
Autonomous Morality
Rules seen as mutually determined and alterable
Moral judgments based on intentions of acotr
Shift due to decline in egocentrism, interxns with peers, and release from adult constraint
When do children start to lie?
Piaget didn't think it happened until age 7, but recent studies suggest children lie as young as 3 or 4 years, mostly to avoid punishment / embarrassment
How did Piaget think "lying" develops over time?
Under 6: lies = "Things you're not supposed to say"
6-10: Lies are untrue statements
Age 11: only intentionally false statements are lies
Kohlberg Moral Development: Three Levels
Kohlberg Moral Development:
Six Stages
1. Punishment and Obedience Orientation.
2. Instrumental Hedonistic Orientation.
3. Good Boy-Good Girl (social relations) Orientation.
4. Authority and Social Order-Maintaining Orientation.
5. Social Contract and Individual Rights Orientation.
6. Universal Ethical Principles Orientation.
When do children transition from Kohlberg's First to Second level of moral development?
10-13 years - preconventional to conventional
When do children transition from Kohlberg's second to third level of moral development?
Mid-adolescence or later (if at all) - Conventional to Post-conventional
Key Assumptions Underlying Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development (3)
1. Children pass through stages in invariant sequence (though stages 5 and 6 not reached by most people)
2. Moral Development is product of Cognitive Development (i.e. disequilibrium / equilibration)
3. Each stage is an organized whole (applies distinct pattern of reasoning across situations.
What's the relationship between Moral Reasoning (a la Kohlberg) and Moral Conduct?
There is no direct relationship between the two, but they're more correlated at higher levels (specifically levels 5 and 6)
Besides Cognitive Growth, what other factors influence moral development? (4)
1. Social Perspective Taking
2. Parents' childrearing practices
3. Peer Interactions
4. Formal Education
What is Gilligan's criticism of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development?
Principles of justice and fairness are biased toward males, whereas mature female morality more likely to refer to principles of connectedness and care.
What does research say about Gilligan's argument against Kohlberg?
Generally not supportive. No consistent differences between males and females in terms of moral orientation & development.
What is Temperament?
Individual's basic behavioral style, believed to have a strong genetic component and a main contributor to personality?
How do we know Temperament is genetic?
Twin Studies (Identical vs. Fraternal) and Longitudinal / Developmental Research showing stability over time
What did Kagan (1994) find?
A third of shy/inhibited 2-yr olds remained shy at age 13; A half of extroverted / outgoing 2 years old remained outgoing at age 13.
If you want to predict temperament in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, when would you take predictor measures? (at what age)?
2 years old. Prior to 1, infant temperament is not a good predictor of later temperament.
Thomas and Chess (1989): 9 dimensions of temperament
1. Activity Level
2. Rhythmicity
3. Approach / Withdrawal
4. Adaptability
5. Threshold of Responsiveness
6. Intensity of reaction
7. Quality of mood
8. Distractibility
9. Attention Span / Persistence
Thomas and Chess (1989): Name and describe three broad temperamental categories of children
1. Easy Children: cheerful, react to new stimuli with moderate/low intensity, adapt easily, regular feeding/sleeping schedules
2. Slow-to-Warm-Up children: sad or tense, low intensity rxns to new stimuli, slow to adapt, initially withdraw from new experience, variable feeding/eating schedules
3. Difficult Children: Respond to new experiences with irritability, difficult to soothe, very active, irregular feeding/eating schedules
Describe Thomas and Chess's Transactional Model of development
Assumes healthy psychological development requires a good fit ("goodness of fit") between child's temperament and environmental factors (particularly parent's behaviors). Have designed prevention and intervention programs primarily helping parents modify behaviors and overt attitudes to better fit their kid's temperament.
Freud's Psychosexual Development: Overall Description
Sexual Impulses centered on different area of body at each stage.
At each stage, too much or too little gratifcation resultes in fixation. Overgratification makes child unwilling to move on to next stage. Undergratification leads person to continually seek gratification of frustrated drive.
Names and Ages of Freud's 5 psychosexual development stages
1. Oral (0-1 year)
2. Anal (1-3 years)
3. Phallic (3-6 years)
4. Latency (6-puberty)
5. Genital (post-puberty)
Signs of an orally fixated child/adult
child: thumbsucking, fingernail biting, pencil chewing
adult: overeating, smoking
Signs of an anally fixated child/adult:
Retentiveness: obsessive timeliness, orderliness, cleanliness
Explosiveness: messiness, disorder
What conflict is resolved in phallic stage, and what is result?
Oedipal / Electra
Identification with same-sex parent and formation of super-ego
What's the sign of successful psychosexual development?
mature sexuality
Three criticisms for Freud's psychosexual development theory?
1. Overemphasis of sexual feelings
2. Fails to include social / intellectual factors
3. Fails to describe adult development
Names and Ages of Erikson's 8 stages of psychosocial development
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (1-3)
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-puberty)
5. Identity vs. Identity Confusion (Adolescence)
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Old Age)
How do parents help a child successfully pass through Erikson's first stage
Warm, Responsive Care. pleasurable experiences; not making baby wait too long for soothing; not handling harshly
How do parents help a child successfully pass through Erikson's second stage
Foster independence by giving opportunities for free choice and not restricting too much or shaming the child
What are the activities that foster success in Erikson's third stage?
Make-believe play (exploration of social roles, insight into potential) Parents should avoid placing too many demands for self-control
What is key for success in Erikson's Fourth stage?
Parents, school, peer group who foster feelings of competence and mastery. Focus both on productive work and cooperation
What happens in Adolescence according to Erikson?
Tasks of earlier stages are integrated. A coherent sense of who he/she is, and his/her place in society is result. Negative outcome is confusion about sexual or occupational identity.
What are signs of success and failure in Erikson's Intimacy vs. Isolation stage of development?
Success: close relationships that enhance your identity and make you feel connected.
Failure: inability to establish close relationships, intense fear of rejection, isolation.
What's the main key to success in the Middle Adulthood, according to Erikson?
Contribution to younger generations - through childrearing, mentoring, productive work.
In old age, what is a person doing according to Erikson?
Reviewing who they were and what they have done with their lives. Satisfaction / feelings that it was worthwhile lead to integrity, while dissatisfaction / regrets lead to despair.
Name and Define two basic dimensions of parenting.
1. Warmth vs. Hostility: warmth means affection, putting child's needs first, enthusiasm, empathy, sensitivity. Hostility means critical, not affectionate, rejecting.
2. Restrictiveness vs. Permissiveness: Restrictive means contolling and demanding. Permissive means few rules, few demands, letting kids make own decisions.
Name and Describe Baumrind's (1967) four basic parenting styles
1. Authoritative: set high standards, expect compliance, but gain control through rational explanation, and seek children's input. Also warm and empathic, nurturant, affectionate.
2. Authoritarian: Controllin & demanding. Expect unquestioning obedience. Respond to disobedience with punishment
3. Permissive: warm and nurturing, but unassertive. Few rules, demands; no enforcement; anything goes
4. Uninvolved: indifferent, undemanding, rejecting; keep kids at distance.
Which of Baumrind's four parenting styles has the best outcomes and what are those outcomes?
Authoritative Parents - children are usually independent, achievement oriented, friendly, and self-confident
Describe the typical child of an authoritarian parent.
insecure, timid, unhappy, dependent, lacking motivation
Describe the typical child of a permissive parent
poor impulse control, ignore rules and regulations, lack involvement in academic/work activities
Describe the typical child of an uninvolved parent.
noncomplianct, demanding, poor self-control, antisocial behavior. High rate of adolescent delinquency.
What role does ethnicity play, if any, in the relationship between parenting styles and academic success?
Though AfAm and Hisp parents tend to be more authoritative than Asian Am parents, their kids, on avg, due more poorly in school. Peer Influence is believed to mitigate - with minority students being more influenced by peers than Whites, and Asian-Am peer groups being more supportive of academic achievement than Hisp or AfAm.
Is Adolescence Necessarily at time of "storm and stress"?
No. Distress over disengagement from families, entering into adult sexuality, and construction of adult identity only applies to about 20% of teens. The rate of psych disturbance for teens is not different from rates for younger kids and adults.
How do genders differ in terms of adolescent growth spurts?
Boys: 12.5 years
Girls: 10.5 years
List early/late maturing boys/girls in order of declining adjustment (academic, popularity, self-image) outcomes.
1. early-maturing boys
2. average maturing boys & girls
3. Late maturing girls
4. Late maturing boys
5. (worst): Early maturing girls
What is the key mediating factor in the relationship between teen physical maturity and adjustment outcomes?
Adolescents' perceptions about their maturity timing (i.e. their internal model for what "normal" maturation is)
Name and Define Marcia's Four Identity Statuses
1.Identity Diffusion: no crisis, no id commitment.
2. Identity Foreclosure: strong commitment without crisis, typically suggested by someone else.
3. Identity Moratorium: Crisis and active exploration, feelings of confusion about career choice and doubt in ability to successfully find one that fits
4. Identity Achievement: Crisis, resolution, and commitment to particular identity
What has research discovered about career identity development (Waterman, 1985)?
1. At age 24, only 60% have achieved stable identity
2. Crisis (moratorium) is uncommon, and occurs mostly in early years of college.
Gilligan (1991) believes adolescent females are at high risk for what?
"Relational Crisis": abandoning their own identity (strengths and accomplishments) and connection to others in order to meet cultural expectations for femininity. "Loss of voice" results from girls internalizing sexist messages from society (in middle school and beyond)
Describe the progression of fear (content) over the course of early childhood:
Infancy: loud noises, strange objects, strangers
Age 3: Fear of Animals Peak
Age 4-5: Fear of Dark
Age 5: Fear of imaginary creatures
After 5: decline in number and intensity of fears
Adolescence: Fears related to social and sexual situations
Prevalence of excessive / unrealistic fears in children over 5?
Effective Treatments for excessive childhood fears?
1. Self-Control Procedure (self-statements) - most effective for fear of dark.
2. Modelling
3. Contact Desensitization (like systematic desens with therapist modelling exposures) for snake and swimming pool phobia
4. Participant Modeling: fear of animals, dentists/doctors, test & social anxiety.
Describe Gender differences in development of aggression in childhood:
Before age 1: boys and girls have similar levels of aggressive behavior
After age 1: boys become more, girls become less aggressive.
Boys more likely to engage in overt (physical and verbal) aggression ; Girls more likely to engage in relational aggression (e.g. excluding victim from group)
Describe the going theory on the cause of gender differences in aggressive behavior?
Biological X Environment: Biological factors (prenatal androgen exposure) increases predisposition to aggression while its manifestation is influenced by environmental variables including parenting style, television viewing, and cognitive factors.
Five Parenting Risk factors leading to aggressive behavior in children...
1. Rejecting / low warmth
2. Permissive or indifferent towards aggressiveness
3. Reliance on power assertive discipline for control
4. insecure/resistant attachment patterns
5. Lax monitoring of children's activities
Name and Describe Patterson et al's (1989) theory of childhood aggression
Coercive Family Interaction Model: social learning perspective. Childhood aggression result of imitation of parental aggression and reinforcement for their aggressive b/h (attention, approval). Parental modelling of aggression is through high rate of commands with inconsistent and harsh physical punishment.
According to Perry, Perry, and Rasmussen (1986) what two types of social cognitions are related to aggressive behavior in children?
1. Self-Efficacy (ability to perform aggressive acts)
2. Outcome Expectancy (rewards and punishments that follow aggression)
Describe Dodge and Crick's (1990) five step cognitive model of childhood aggression
1. Encoding of social cues
2. interpretation of social cues
3. Response search
4. Response evaluation
5. Response enactment.
Deficient/biased processing at any step leads to deviant (possibly aggressive) b/h. E.g. aggressive children more likely to interpret the ambiguous acts of others as intentionally hostile.
Describe the relationship (and mediating factors) between TV viewing and aggressive behavior in children
Direct correlation: the more violent tv shows watched, the more aggressive child behaves. Holds across age, gender, and SES. May hold more true for children already above average in aggressiveness. Also increases tolerance for aggression. Can be mitigated by: adult presence; parental diapproval of aggression, parental encouragement of nonaggressive b/h, limits on viewing violent TV shows
Name and describe the most effective intervention for highly aggressive children.
Social-Skills Training: 1. Conflict resolution; 2. Cognitive interventions (adjusting interpretations of others' statements and actions); 3. Empathy Training.
Which technique is ineffective and perhaps detrimental for highly aggressive children
Cathartic Technique
Desscribe Patterson's intervention program for highly aggressive children
Behavioral modification program desinged to alter how parents interact with aggressive children. Increases reinforcement of desireable behaviors, consistent rule enforcement, use of non-violent alternatives to physical punishment
Two factors that seem to protect at-risk children from developing psychopathology?
Easy Temperament
Consistent Caregiver
Five key findings related to adjustment and chronic illness in children.
1. Illnesses involving brain functioning lead to more social and behavior problems than those that don't.
2. Family cohesion and support for child help chronically ill child to adjust
3. Parental adjustment helps child adjust
4. Boys (esp age 6-11) are at higher risk for behavioral problems; girls at greater risk for self-reported distress.
5. Adolescence are at high risk for not adhering to tx regimens - for fear of being different from peers
When and what should parents tell a chronically ill child about his/her disease?
1. The earlier and more direct, the better.
2. The truth, in a way that is consistent with child's age and level of understanding.
3. Give opportunities to discuss fears, ansk questions.
4. Know that children age 4-5 are most often concerned about mutilation, while school-aged children fear pain and death more.
Prevalence of drinking and drugging in adolescents ages 12-17?
Alcohol: 21%; Cigarettes: 18.2%; Pot: 8.3% (1999)
Long Term Consequences of Teen Drug use?
1. Teens using a drug in high school more likely to be using the same drug in early 20's.
2. Teens smoking cigarettes more likely to have respiratory problems and depression.
3. Illegal drug users more likely to have mariltal and job instability, and delinquent behaviors.
How does divorce effect parenting?
1. Diminished capcity to parent continues about 2 years post divorce.
2. Marked by inconsistent discipline, alternating between detachment and punitiveness.
3. Mothers show less affection and may treat sons more harshly. Fathers may become more indulgant and permissive.
4. Initial increases in contact with noncustodial parent diminish over time. 5. Household routines disintegrate.
Describe the relationship between divorce's impact on children and age at the time of divorce:
Preschool children have most negative short-term outcomes (largely due to limited cognitive capcities and risk of self-blaming / regression / separation anxiety.
Older children may suffer more long-term consequences (in terms of painful memories and doubts about their own abilities to maintain marriage)
Describe the relationsip between divorce's impact on children and gender of children
1. Early research though boys suffer more than girls in short and long term.
2. Boys externalize (noncompliance, demandingness, hostility) while girls internalize (withdrawal, self-criticism)
3. The girls exhibit "sleeper effect" - in preschool or elementary school at time of divorce, show few problems immediately, but as teens show noncompliance, low self-esteem, emotional problems, and antisocial behavior. More likely to marry young, get pregnant before marriage, and choose unstable husbands.
Describe the inconsistent finding on the relationship between custody arrangements and adjustment after divorce
Some evidence that same-sex parent custody has better outcomes for adjustment than opposite-sex parent. This may be especially true for boys. Other findings suggest that for teens (male and female), father custody is associated with higher rates of depression, anxiety, poorer grades, and other.
Describe the relationship between divorce and children's school performance:
1. School performance suffers interms of grades, peer and behavioral problems, and risk of dropping out.
2. Some evidence that boys and older children suffer most.
3. Evidence for "low-income effect": family income accounts for some or most of the relationship between divorce and poor school performance.
factors that influence the consequences of divorce:
1. Exposure to open conflict (whether divorced or not) is detrimental to child adjustment.
2. positive relationships with both parents
3. Availability of extended family
4. Positive school environment
5. Pre-Divorce adjustment
6. Upheaval of daily routines
Impact of stepparents on child adjustment post-divorce - describe
1. Stepparent families are more authoritarian
2. Children in step-families have lower grades, more delinquency than children in biological families
3. Sometimes, younger boys benefit from stepfather in terms of anxety and agner reduction and other adjustment problems. Not true for older boys.
Differences between stepmothers and step-father relationships with children:
Relationships with stepfathers often distant, disengaged, unpleasant.
Relationships with stepmothers involve more frequent but abrasive interactions
Longitudinal outcomes for stepfathers:
Relationships with sons may improve, but not so for daughters.
What are the risks of having homosexual parents?
None whatsoever.
Benefits for mothers and children of maternal employment
Low and Middle income moms have greater satisfaction when they work (and this is supported by dad).
Children have higher self-esteem and better family/peer relations, and are less stereotyped. Benefits more pronounced for daughters.
Are there any risks of maternal employment?
Old research warned of potential lower school achievement / intelligence for sons of working mothers. This appears to only be true for moms working more than 40 hours / week.
Family beliefs may impact consequences of maternal employment for kids. Traditional families (gender inequality) lead to more anxiety, depression, and self-ratings of peer acceptance and school achievement compared to children from more egalitarian dual-income families.
What are the long-term consequences of maternal employment?
Summarize the research evidence on the effects of day care on children
High Quality Daycare: No adverse effects and some benefits.
1. Comparable IQs
2. Enriched daycare for low-income children may improve intellectually
3. Positive effects on social development
4. Some suggestion they may be less compliant with adults, more aggressive with peers (but also more self-suficient?)
Low Quality Daycare:
Number of negative consequences,including distractibility / lower task involvement
Describe father-child interactions in terms of relative quantity:
Time with dad increasing (esp in dual-income families), but still is considerably less than time spent with mothers.
Describe father-child intrxns in terms of relative quality:
Moms: caregiving; dads: play (esp "rough and tumble")
Note: these trends are maintained, even if dad is primary caregiver!!
Describe sibling relationships in early childhood:
Both pos and neg, but mostly pos.
Risk factors for sibling rivarly in early childhood
Same Gender
Close in age
One or both highly active and emotionally intense.
Inconsistent Discipline
Differential treatment
Parents don't pay enough attention to kids
Describe sibling relationships in middle childhood
"Closeness and Conflict"
Relative to earlier, greater closeness, but also more friction and fighting
Describe sibling relationships in adolescence
More egalitarian in terms of power & nurturance. Decline in sibling interaction as peer relations become more important. Conflicts typically peak in early adolescence, and then decline.
What are Levinson's Season's of man's life?
Early Adulthood
Middle Adulthood
Late Adulthood
-- each divided into substages
What are the substages of early adulthood according to Levinson?
"Entering the adult world"
"Age 30 Transition"
"Settling Down"
What is one conflict associated with early adulthood, acc to Levinson
Defining "the dream" (vision of ideal life"
Describe three conflicts associated with transition to middle adulthood (40-45) acc to Levinson
Being young vs. being old
Being attached to others vs. separated.
Deflation of the dream
What's the research on midlife crises?
Levinson reported 80% of men in his sample experienced one. Others suggest more men go through a period of reevaluation rather than crisis. For example, rates of psychopathology don't increase in epidemiologic studies.
Neugarten identified three shifts in adults around age 50. They were...
1. Outer-World orientation to inner-world. (cf. Jung)
2. Active to passive mastery
3. Time perspective: "time since birth" to "time until death"
Generally, what cognitive changes are a normal part of the aging process?
Maintenance of "crystallized" intelligence, Loss of "fluid" intelligence (due to loss of neurons, NT depeletion)
What is the "Classic Aging Pattern" on the WAIS:
Little Decine on: info, vocab, arithmetic, comp.
Moderate decline on: similarities, digit span
Sharper decline on: all performance subtests.
What is the "terminal drop" as it pertains to aging and cognition?
A substantial drop in all facets of intelligence in the months before death.
What is the specific cognitive skill most often affected by age?
Processing Speed - both mental and physical slowing
How does the normal aging process affect attention?
Selective and Sustained attention are not affected by age.
Divided attention (i.e. dichotomous listening tasks) does evidence age-related decrements.
Describe how the brain ages:
(8 changes)
1. Begins to shrink due to neuron loss at age 30; atrophy accelerates at age 60
2. Loss of neurons especially affects hippocampus, cortex, locus cereleus
3. Senile Plaques
4. Enlarged Vetnricles
5. Reduced Cerebral Blood Flow
6. Decrease in some NT levels
7. Some compensation by way of new connections among remaining neurons.
8. Recent discovery that new brain cells develop in hippocampus in adult years.
How is memory affected by age (which types are most affected)
Recent LT Memory (greatest effect)
Working Memory (next up)
Relatively unaffected: remote LTM
What memory process deficit underlies the loss associated with age
Encoding Strategies (training can help improve)
What are STM divisions and how are they relatively affected by age?
STM: primary and working memory.
Primary: responsible for reatining small amount of memory in consciousness for a short time (e.g. a phonenumber from listing to dial)
Working Memory: capacity to manipulate the info held in primary memory
Age: related to working memory decrements, likely due to reduced processing speed (vs. capacity). Primary memory is relatively unaffected.
Temporal divisions of LTM and the relative effect of aging?
Recent & Remote.
Remote is relatively unaffected
Recent declines, likely due to ineffective encoding. Training helps with normal age-related decline in recent LTM, but not in memory loss due to brain pathology (e.g. alzheimers)
LTM: typology and relative aging effects. (5)
1. Episodic/Semantic/ Procedural: Episodic memory affected the most (ability to recall personal experiences). Recall affected more than recognition
2. Verbal vs. Nonverbal: Visiospatial memory declines mirror verbal memory declines
3. Prospective Memory (ability to remember to do things in the future): declines, but decline is much worse for time-based tasks (remember to do 'x' at 7 am) vs. event-based tasks (remember to take your meds when Katie Couric comes on channel 4).
4. Explicit vs. Implicit: Deficits in explicit (not so much implicit) memory
5. Metamemory: Older adults are less accurate in estimating their memory, but this depends on situation. General memory predictions are typicaly underestimated; specific memory tasks are overestimated (by older people)
What is wisdom?
"Expertise in the fundamental pragmatics of life permitting exceptional insight and judgment involving complex and uncertain matters of the human condition" - practical know-how and good judgment in ambiguous situations
What is important and not so important in terms of increasing wisdom?
Personality and wisdom-related experience is important. Intelligence not so much.
Whose theory is supported by wisdom studies?
Erikson - old age task of introspection and developing integrety or sense of wholeness.
Three changes in female sexuality with age?
Less intense orgasms, thinning vaginal walls, reduced sexual lubrication
[no change in sex drive]
Three changes in male sexuality with age?
Fewer spontaneous erections; erections take longer/dificult to maintain; longer refractory period
How does sexual activity change with age?
1. Declines for both genders, but w/ individual differences.
2. Men report more activity than women at every age, with difference increasing after mid- to late- 60's
3. Best predictor of old age sex: sexual activity in younger years
4. For women, predictor of sexual activity: marital status (availability of partner)
5. For men, predictor of sexual activity: health status
How do attitudes towards death change over the life span?
1. Prior to age 2: lack of understanding.
2. 2-7: think death is reversible sleep-like state
3. 7-11: recognize death is irreversible, become anxious about death of loved ones
4. Adulthood: fear of death peaks at middle age
5. Old-Age: talk more about death, but seem less fearful than younger adults
Kubler-Ross stages:
DABDA: Denial; Anger; Bargaining; Depression; Acceptance.
Empirical findings regarding terminally ill people
Progress through wide variety of feelings, but not necessarily in fixed order. Hope is also a common feeling.