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57 Cards in this Set

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differentiation
The process by which cells or tissues undergo a change toward a more specialized form or function, especially during embryonic development
epigenesis
simple to complex, de novo, from scratch. proponents are aristotle and harvey
preformation
sperm were seeds, minature structures of bigger structures already in cell
morphogenesis
differentiation of cells and tissues in the early embryo establishing form and structure of various organs and parts of the body
blastula
metazoan embryo consisting of 60 blastomeres and containing a blastocoel in the center
gastrula
stage following the blastula consisting of a hollow, two layered sac of ectoderm and endoderm surrounding an archenteron that communicates to the exterior thru the blastopore
archenteron
turns into the intestinal or digestive cavity
oviparity
from eggs
viviparity
live birth
ovoviparity
from eggs that hatches inside the body
holoblastic
whole egg into smaller cells
meroblastic
only part of the cell becomes the embryo, the yolk for nutrition
ex ovo omnia
from the egg
blastoderm
yolk free cytoplasm that gives rise to the embryo
neural groove
precursor of the neural tube
tripoblastic
has three germ layers
dipoblastic
has two layers. lacks mesoderm
notochord
rod of dorsal most mesoderm that separates the embryo into the right and left halves, instructs the ectoderm to become the nervous system
homologous structures
organs whose underlying similarities arsie from their being derived from a common ancenstral structure
malformations
abnormalities caused by genetic events
syndrome
several abnormalities occuring at the same time
piebaldism
dominant mutation in the KIT gene on the long arm of chromosome 4 characterized by anemia, sterility, unpigemented regions, deafness, abscence of peristalsis
KIT gene
responsible for encoding the protein that is expressed in the neural crest cells
syngamy
fusion of genetic information from the sperm and oocyte as the male and female pronuclei fuse
gonocyte
a primordial, diploid cell of endodermal derivation, such as an oogonium. gives rise to germ cells.
germ plasm
a portion of the endoderm at the vegetal pole of a zygote. cells migrate to the mesodermal genital ridge and rise to gonocytes
fibronectin
glycoprotein found on the surface of cells and in connective tissue that directs the migration of cells by adhesion during development
developmental genetics
examines how genotype is expressed through phenotype, differential gene expression from the same nuclear repertoire
chromatin
complex of DNA+histone (protein)
nucleosome
basic unit of chromatin structure
exon
regions of DNA that code for a protein
intron
sections of hte DNA that do not code for protein
promoter site
site where RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription
RNA polymerase
enzyme responsible for transcription, reads genetic code stored in DNA
codon
tri nucleotide unit (nucleotide unit composed of phosphate, dioxyribose and a nucleotide bases-adenine, guanine,cytosine, thymine or urasil in place of adenine in RNA)
cap sequence
site that receives the methylated guanosine after transcription. responsible for binding of RNA to ribosome
polyadenylation
placement of a tail of 200-300 adenylate residues on the RNA transcript (3' end)
poly (A) tail
confers stability on the mRNA, allows the mRNA to exit nucleus, permits RNA to be translated into protein
TATA box
RNA polymerase binding site, about 30 base pairs upstream from the site where the first base is transcribed
transcription factor
additional protein needed so that RNA polymerase would bind to the TATA box (DNA sequence) efficiently
basal transcription factor
nuclear proteins necessary for proper initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ( w/c in turn trascribes protein encoding genes)
TFIID
1.first basal transcription factor taht recognizes the TATA box (via TATA binding protein or TBP)
2. foundation of the transcription initiation complex
3. prevents nucleosome from forming
4. stabilized by basal transcription factor to bind to TFIIB
TFIIB
RNA polymerase binds once stabilized (w/ TFIIA)
TFIIE, F, H
1.release RNA polymerase from complex to transcribe gene
2. unwind DNA helix so RNA polymerase have free template from which to transcribe
TBP-associated factors (TAF)
stabilizes TBP
mediator complex
contains about 25 proteins that that can modulate the activity of RNA polymerase and TFIIH
cell specific transcription factor
can activate gene by stabilizing transcription initiation complex. can bind to TAF or directly w/ other factors, also destabilizes nucleosomes.
enhancer
DNA sequence that activates utilization of the promoter, controlls rate and efficiency and rate of transcription
cis-
same. as in enhancers only work on cis-linked promoters (on the same chromosome)but can function at great distances
reporter gene
bind them to a specific gene to determine if they are enhancers.
Pax6 gene
expressed in retina, neural tube, lens, pancreas
silencers
inhibits transcription
DNA binding domain
recognizes a particular DNA sequence
trans-activating domain
activates or suppreses the transcription of a gene whose promoter or enhancer is has bound
protein-protein interaction domain
allows the TFs to be modulated by TAFs or other TF
reproduction
creation of new individuals
sex
combining of two different sets of genes=new arrangements