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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a macule?
• circumscribed change in skin color without elevation or depression
• a flat, non-palpable lesion measuring < 1 cm
• ex. petechiae, measles, scarlet fever nevi
What is a papule?
• elevated, firm, circumscribed lesion < 1 cm
• solid palpable lesion
What is a patch?
• same as a macule but > 1 cm
• a flat, non-palpable, irregular shaped macule
What is a nodule?
same as a papule but > 1 cm
What is a plaque?
• an elevated, firm, and rough lesion with flat top > 1 cm
• a plateau-like lesion that could also be a group of confluent papules
What is a cyst?
• elevated, circumscribe, encapsulated lesions in the dermis or subcutaneous layer
• filled with fluid or semi-solid material
What is an abscess?
• a focal collection of pus resulting from necrosis of tissue
• elevated, circumscribed, encapsulated lesions in the dermis or subcutaneous layer
How can you tell if an abscess if ready for irrigation and drainage?
• an abscess that is fluctuant is ready for I&D
• an abscess that is indurated (hard) is not ready for I&D
What is atopic dermatitis?
• an immune-mediated inflammation of the skin (IgE)
• pruritic inflammation of the dermis and epidermis
Where does atopic dermatitis usually present in children? in adults?
• children: flexures in antecubital fossa, popliteal fossa, neck, and posterior gluteal cleft
• adults: may progress to frank diffuse eczema; localized to eyelid, retroauricular, or hands
What are treatment options for atopic dermatitis?
• avoid scratching
• daily bathing (but avoid long-lasting hot showers)
• topical steroids
• Emollients, cream, or ointments (less effective)
• Hydroxyzine & oral antihistamines
• oral antibiotics (for skin infections)
What is contact dermatitis?
• inflammatory skin reaction of the dermis and epidermis to an external agent or toxin
• produces itching, redness, discharge, desquamation, hyperpigmentation, and fissuring
What are the 2 types of contact dermatitis?
• irritant
• allergic
How can you differentiate between irritant and allergic contact dermatitis?
• irritant contact dermatitis produces symptoms within minutes of exposure
• allergic contact dermatitis needs prolonged exposure to develop an allergic response
What is the treatment for contact dermatitis?
• removal of irritant
• topical or systemic steroids
• cool compress, oatmeal baths
What are characteristics of nummular eczematous?
• chronic, pruritic inflammatory dermatitis
• common on lower legs and trunk
• coin-shaped plaques (4-5 cm in diameter) composed of small papules & vesicles on an erythematous base
What are risk factors for nummular/discoid eczema?
• excessive bathing
• prolonged water exposure
What are treatment options for nummular/discoid eczema?
• skin hydration w/ hydrated petrolatum or moisturizing cream
• topical steroids & crude coal tar
What is the most common scalp problem for which patients seek medical attention?
Seborrheic Dermatitis
What are characteristics of seborrheic dermatitis?
• chronic, inflammatory, papulosquamous disease
• more common in areas w/ numerous sebaceous glands and oily areas of the face
• hair is normal; scalp is scaly and mildly erythematous
What is thought to be the cause of seborrheic dermatitis?
overgrowth of fungus pityrosporum ovale
What must you be suspicious of with an infant that presents with seborrheic dermatitis, diarrhea, and failure to thrive?q
What are clinical manifestations of sbeorrheic dermatitis?
• papules are moist, transparent to pinkish-orange, greasy, and scaling with sharp margins
• may itch with scalp involvement
What are treatment options of seborrheic dermatitis?
• selenium sulfide or zinc pyrithione (daily dandruff shampoo)

• hydrocortisone 1% (to decrease itching and redness)

• topical antifungals
- ketoconazole (Nizoral)
- ciclopirox (Loprox 1%)
If an infant has no response to treatment for seborrheic dermatitis, what should you be suspicious of?
zinc deficiency
What is stasis dermatitis?
• eczematous dermatitis of the legs
• associated with edema, hyperpigmentation, & varicose veins
• most common in the lower legs
What is the clinical presentation of stasis dermatitis?
• history of DVT, surgery, or ulceration
• skin is dry, fissured, and erythematous
• pruritis, edema, and brown discoloration of the skin
What are treatment options of stasis dermatitis?
• elevation and compression of the legs
• cool water dressings (for acute exudative inflammation)
• topical or oral steroids
• oral antihistamine (for pruritis)
• can treat with fem-pop bypass
What is the fungus that causes tinea/pityriasis vesicolor?
pityrosporum orbiculare
What are risk factors for tinea vesicolor?
• oily skin (most common predisposing factor)
• excess heat
• humidity
• immunosuppresion (ex. stress, medications)
What is the clinical presentation of tinea vesicolor?
many small, circular, white, scaling papules on the upper trunk
What would a KOH prep show in a patient with tinea vesicolor?
hyphae and round spores "spaghetti and meatball pattern"
What are treatment options for tinea vesicolor?
• selenium sulfide lotion
• ketoconazole shampoo
• zinc pyrithione soap
• oral antifungal (ex. miconazole, clotrimazole, econazole)
What is a potential side effect from oral antifungals?
increased LFTs
Name and describe the two clincial presentation patterns of tinea corporis
• round annular lesions
- begin as flat, scaly papules that slowly develop a raised border
- central area becomes brown or hypopigmented
- extends in all directions

• deep inflammatory lesions
- round inflamed, elevated lesion with a red, boggy, pustular surface
- due to infection into the hair follicle
What are treatment options fo tinea corporis?
• antifungal cream for at least 1 week after resolution of infection

• oral antifungal (if needed): griseofulvin, itraconazole, terbinafine, fluconazole
What is the most common area affected by dermatophytes?
foot (Tinea pedis/Athelete's foot)
What are predisposing factors for tinea pedis?
• shoes creating a warm moist environment
• locker room floors
• communal baths
Name and describe the 3 clinical presentation of tinea pedis
• interdigital: web space is dry, scaly, and fissured; itching is profuse

• chronic scaling of the plantar surface: entire sole is covered with fine silvery white scales

• acute vesicular: itchy, sterile vesicles that are due to an allergic response to the fungus
What are treatment options for tinea pedis?
• oral or topical antifungal meds (ex. Terbinafine, butenafine, sertaconazole)
• Burrow's wet dressings w/ topical antifungals (for acute vesicles)
Tinea cruris occurs in what location of the body?
Tinea faciei occurs in what location of the body?
Tinea manuum occurs in what location of the body?
Tinea capitis occurs in what location of the body?
Tinea barbae occurs in what location of the body?
Onychomycosis occurs in what location in the body?