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21 Cards in this Set

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stress:
-organism acted upon by forces that disrupt homeostasis
-adaptive capacity of individual
-hypothalamus becomes desensitized
-causes exhaustion
What type of the reaction does the body give under stress?
alarm reaction "fight or flight"
What happens to the body during a sympathetic response?
increased HR, increased BP, dilated breathing tubes, dilated pupils, colon shuts down, sweat glands open
The 2 Neuroendocrine interactions are:
1. catecholamine release
2. hypothalamic, pituitary and adrenal hormone release
What hormones are released during a catecholamine release?
norepinephrine and epinepherine
norepinepherine:
-similar to epinepherine
-produced by adrenal medulla
-released by sympathetic neurons
-vasoconstrictor with little effect on CO
epinepherine:
-similar to norepinepherine
-produced by adrenal gland
-has greater influence on cardiac output than norepinepherine
-responsible for glycogenolysis
glycogenolysis:
conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver and muscles
aldosterone:
-produced by adrenal cortex
-increases renal absorption of Na+ and increaes excretion of K+
-water follows Na+
-95% mineralocorticoid activity
cortisol:
-aka hydrocortisone
-95% glucocorticoid activity
-stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver
-inhibits uptake of glucose by cells preserving it for neurons
-catabolic in muscle, bone, lymphoid skin and adipose
-promotes gastric secretion
-immunosuppressant
-suppress inflammatory response
gluconeogenesis:
formation of glucose
contraindication for cortisol:
long term use bc it catabolizes in muscle, bone and lymphoid skin and adipose
immunosuppressent:
suppresses the formation of antibodies
growth hormone:
-levels increase with strenuous exercise and fear
-causes a parallel rise in cortisol
prolactin:
-stimulates milk formation in breasts
-increases with stressful physical and psychological stimuli
-increases with sexual stimuli
testosterone:
decreases after physical and psychological stressful stimuli
amygdala:
generates emotional reponses
hippocampus:
moderates emotional reponses
endorphins:
-raises pain threshold
-produces sedation and euphoria
-increases with exercise, drama, anticipation, etc
What diseases can be caused by stress?
hair loss, emotional tension, mouth sores, asthma, tics, tension headaches, backache, digestive disturbances, IBS, acne, menstrual irreg, impotence
How does stress change with age?
1. causes reduction of neurotransmitters at neuromuscular junctions
2. from retirement, loss of income, death and others
3. causes decreased immune response