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26 Cards in this Set

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neoplasia:
-new cell growth such as a tumor
-altered expression of cellular genes
-implications for therapy change according to variations of the growth
benign:
"-oma"
-adjacent tissue is not invaded (not invasive)
-may block blood vessel or brain
-histological exam is done to determine differentiation of cells
anaplasia:
-extremely distorted cells
-differentiated pattern of cells compared to normal
-the more poorly differentiated the cells, the more malignant it is.
2 types of malignant cells:
1. carcinoma (epithelial origin)
2. sarcoma (mesenchymal or muscle origin)
3 ways tumors spread:
1. direct invasion (metastisize)
2. lymphatics
3. blood stream
where do most tumors metastisize?
in the liver
Name exs of malignant tumors that end in "-oma".
lymphoma, hepatoma, melanoma
melanoma:
-cancerous mole
-worst type of skin cancer bc it goes into the bloodstream
what type of tumor can be cured with radiation therapy?
lymphoma
How does a malignant tumor travel thru the lymphatics?
1. tumor metastisizes
2. travels to lyphatics
3. travels to lymph nodes in one specific area
4. if removed, pt is 100% cured
How does a malignant tumor travel thru the blood stream?
1. tumor metastisizes
2. travels to blood stream
3. moves throughout the entire body
Can all benign tumors be removed?
No, benign brain tumors may not be removeable or may cause damage by the size if removed.
grading:
-degree of anaplasia
-this system is used as a standard for all MD's to understand
staging:
-determines location and pattern of the spread of cells
2 ways of staging:
1. CT scan or an MRI
2. Radiography and surgery (to evaluate hard tissue like bones)
signs and symptoms of bone marrow cancer:
1. pain
2. cachexia
3. bone marrow suppression (also from chemotherapy)
4. leukopenia
5. anemia
6. infection (low immune response)
7. hemorrhage
cachexia:
wasting away from severe, long-standing illness such as cancer
Why would a cancer patient have cachexia?
An increase in metabolism results bc the cancer in the body is growing very fast
What is the overall cure rate for cancer?
51% and 3-5 yrs (except for prostate cancer which is 10-15 yrs bc of the slow growth)
What is the cure rate for cancer surgery?
-60% of patients survive
-most common treatment
-best chance of a cure
-vital structures are usually involved
-margins of surgery are indicated
Radiation therapy:
-kills cells beyond primary site
-when cancer is unresectable (can't be removed surgically)
-damages nuclear DNA
-destroys normal cells
Chemotherapy:
-drugs that go throughout the body
-effects normal cells
-chemicals are toxic
What is another name used for neoplasm?
tumor
What is the leading cause of death in the US?
heart disease
What is the 2nd leading cause of death in the US?
cancer
what is a very common symptom of cancer?
chronic irritation