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23 Cards in this Set

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who is most susceptible to infectious processes?
very young and very old
Types of pathogens:
bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites
bacteria:
-follow a typical pattern
-localized
-increases WBC count and fever
-Tx with antibiotics
sepsis:
infection in the bloodstream which travels throughout the body
What do antibiotics disrupt?
normal microbial flora, fungi growth, decreases in vit K+
bacteria:
-cocci (staph, strep, pneumo)
-rods (pseudomonas, proteus)
-aerobic or anaerobic
-gram + or gram -
virus:
-dependent on host for energy and replication
-can change, very adaptable
-contain DNA and RNA
-can lyse phagocytize or infect viral genetic material into the cell
fungi:
-superficial (tinea)
-subcutaneous (chronic, granulomatous disease)
-systemic; usually in soil
predisposed immunosuppressed chemotherapy, AID's, antibiotics
4 families of parasites:
1. Protozoa
2. Roundworm
3. Flatworm
4. Anthropods
What do parasites prefer?
heat and humidity, insect vectors, sewage, contaminated raw meat or veggies, common in poor living conditions
How are parasites diagnosed?
by identification
How does a microbial adhere?
wound, bite, direct penetration
Host defense system:
barriers interrupted by invasive medical intervention such as tubes, catheters, etc.
2 types of barriers in the host defense system:
mechanical epithelial barriers and biochemical epithelial barriers
Name 3 mechanical epithelial barriers of the host defense system.
1. skin
2. mucous membranes (GI,GU,lungs)
3. burns, tubes, etc
Name 4 biochemical epithelial barriers of the host defense system.
1. acid environment-skin,urine,vagina
2. HCl in stomach
3. Lysozyme in saliva
4. Sebaceous (oil) glands
What are the 5 signs of inflammation?
1. redness
2. temperature increase (to kill bacteria)
3. swelling to dilute the process
4. pain (determines location)
5. loss of function (does not always occur)
Phagocytosis:
"eat debris"
-neutrophils vital responders
-release mediators (serotonin, prostaglandins)
Interferons:
defense against viruses
Fever:
-hypothalmic thermoregulation
-inhibits bacteria

>37 degF bacteria cannot survive
What host factors decrease resistance to infection?
1. poor nutrition
2. chronic illness (cancer,diabetes,heart disease,renal failure)
3. acute illness (trauma or burns,splenectomy)
4. stress
5. imunocompromised host
What are the areas of concern for a third degree trauma patient?
preventing infection and fluid loss problem
What organ is very vascular and bleeds easily?
spleen