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40 Cards in this Set

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animism
belief in souls or doubles
applied anthropology
the application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems
azande
tribe in northern africa (sudan); heavy in witchcraft
biomedicine
western medicine, which attributes illness to scientifically demonstrated agents - biological organisms or toxic materials
cargo cults
postcolonial, acculturative, religious movements common in Melanesia that attempts to explain European domination and wealth and to achieve simliar success magically by mimicking European behavior
communal religions
in Wallace's typology, these religions have - in addition to shamanic cults - communal cults in which people organize community rituals such as harvest ceremonies and rites of passage
communitas
intense community spirit, a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness; characteristic of people experiencing liminalty together.
colonialism
the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time
cultural compatible development
projects that harness traditional organizations and locally percieved needs for change and that have a cuturally appropriate design and implementation strategy
development anthropology
the branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural development of, economic development
derek freeman
along with Margaret Mead, a classic example of how 2 anthropologists can come with drastically different takes on the same place and people.
disease
an etic or scientifically identified health threat caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen
emotionalistic disease
theories that assume that illness is caused by intense emotional experiences
durkheim
said that the unity of the human social order is enhanced by symbolic association with and imitation of the natural order
green revolution
agricultural development based on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, twentieth-century cultivation techniques, and new crop varieties such as IR-8 ("miracle rice").
illness
an emic condition of poor health felt by an individual
imperialism
a policy of extending the rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies
liminality
the crtically important marginal or in-between phase of a rite of passage
magic
use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims
mana
sacred impersonal force in melanesian and polynesian religions
medical anthropology
unites biological and cultural anthropologists in the study of disease, health problems, health care systems, and theories about illness in different cultures and ethnic groups
monotheism
worship of an eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being
naturalistic disease
includes scientific medicine; theories that explain illness in impersonal systemic terms
NGO
nongovernmental organizations
olympian religions
in Wallace's typology, develop with state organization; have full-time religious specialists - professional priesthoods
overinnovation
characterisitic of development projects that require major changes in people's daily lives, especially ones that interfere with customary subsistence pursuits
personalistic disease
theories that attribute illness to sorcerers, witches, ghosts, or ancestral spirits
polytheism
belief in several deities who control aspects of nature
religion
beliefs and rituals concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces
revitalization movements
movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society
rites of passage
culturally defined activities associated with the transition from one place or stage in life to another
ritual
behavior that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; rituals are held at set times and places and have liturgical orders
schistosomiasis
disease caused by liver flukes transmitted by snails in habiting ponds, lakes, and waterways, often created by irrigation projects
shaman
a part-time religious practitioner who mediates between people and supernatural beings and forces
taboo
prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions
totemism
worship of an animal or plant apical ancestor of a clan
underdifferentiation
planning fallacy of viewing less developed countries as an undifferentiated group; ignoring cultural diversity and adopting a uniform approach (often ethnocentric) for very different types o fproject beneficiaries
malinowski
noted that magic and rleigion can reduce anxiety and allay fears.
marx
saw socioeconomic stratification as a sharp and simple division between two opposed classes: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat
matai
means chief; the matai system now refers to respect for elders