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9 Cards in this Set

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Charles Darwin
(1809-1882)
Who/What/Sig?
Who/What: Scientest who discovered the theory that humans/animals are not fixed in their attributes, and that evolution can happen over time if conditions are needed to be meet.
Sig: Studies lead to Natural Selection. His book lead to Social Darwism.
Social Darwinism

Who/What/Sig?
Who: Herbert Spencer
What: Term used to describe a range of political ideologies which are held to be compatible with the concept that Charles Darwin's theory of evolution of biological traits in a population by natural selection can also be applied to competition between human societies or groups within a society.
Sig: Gave a way to justify social inequality as being meritocratic. At various times it has also been used to justify laissez-faire capitalism, imperialism, or racism.
'The Orgin of Species'

Who/What/Sig?
Who: Charles Darwin
What: A book that explains people/animals evolve as groups of organisms (populations), not individuals, through natural selection.
Sig: Made way for Social Darwinism, but asl explained that species are mutable, not fixed.
Natural Selection

Who/What?
Who: Charles Darwin
What: Explained in "The Origin of Species". TOoS in depth:
1. Happens when species produce offspring faster than food supply can increase.
2. Existence of biological variation.
3. Competition b/t individuals.
4. Thos w/ favorable traits have advantages.
5. Environment determines what is benifical.
6. NS depends upon successful reproduction.
7. Future traits maybe differ from ancestrial traits.
8. Geographic locations can change an isolated species.
Herbert Spencer

Who/What/Sig/Ex?
Who: Father of Social Darwinism
What: Coined the term "Survival of the Fittest" meaning that only the strogest/best/ruthless survive.
Sig: SotF used to justify ruthless behaviour.
Ex: Europeans taking over the Indians.
Survival of the Fittest

Who/What/Sig/Ex?
Who: Herbert Spencer
What: Means that only the strogest/best/ruthless survive.
Sig: SotF used to justify ruthless behaviour.
Ex: Europeans taking over the Indians.
Ernest Hootan

What/Sig/Ex?
What: Believed that Cephalic Index could indicate a person's propensity towards criminality.
Sig: Created a way to classify races/people by the shape of their heads.
Cephalic Index
Who: Ernest Hootan
What: Difference in head shape/size has significant meaning.
Sig: Created a way to classify races/people by the shape of their heads.
Ex: Wide heads = inferior
Narrow heads = Superior
Eugenics

Who/What/Sig/Ex?
Who: Francis Galton
What: A way to enhance the human race's physical and mental traits through 'selective breeding' or other similar means.
Sig: Many people had to go through forced sterlizations, or worse.
Ex: A woman wanting an intellegent man's sperm to have an intellegent baby.
Between 1907-1940 about 35k poor women were sterilzed.