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30 Cards in this Set

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Holism / Holistic Perspective

Who?
Who: Anthros - Ethnologyist
Holism / Holistic Perspective

What?
What: Fundamental principle of anthropology, that the various parts of culture must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence.
Holism / Holistic Perspective

Sig?
Significanc: A way to view, study, and learn the world.
Holism / Holistic Perspective

Examples?
Examples: Viewing a field of flowers as a whole rather than each flower individually.
Ethnology

Who?
Who: Ethnologyist
Ethnology

What?
What: Systematic description of a particular culture based on first hand observation.
Ethnology

Sig?
Significance: Uses actual human ideas, expereiences and disccussions with humans in the culture to explain a culture.
Ethnology

Examples?
Examples: Living with war-like people, not fighting their battles, but finding how the war fits in their life.
Famous founders of United States Anthropology
Frank Hamilton (1857-1900) studied "primitive peoples".
Matilda Coxe Stevenson (1849-1915) spoke for women's rights. Field work with Zuni. Founded Women's Anthro Society. First professional female scientist.
Ethnologyist
Anthropologist that studies cultures from a comparative or historical point of view, utilizing ethnographic accounts.
Significance: Experiences mental aspect of human past/present/future.
Participant obvservation

Who/What/Sig?
Ethnologist who seeks to understand ways of a culture by eating the same food, speaking the same language, experiencing the same habbits and customs. Learns the culture far better than any other way.
Informants

Who/What/Sig?
Members of a society in which the anthroplogist/ethnologist works closely with to learn the way of the culture. The informants act as parents to a anthropologist, in that the anthro learns correct behavior and habits for the society.
Theory
In science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data.
Four Field Approach
Overall, when the four fields of anthropology are combined in a four-field approach they offer a powerful tool for explaining human diversity

Fields:
Physical Anthropology - study of humans as biological organisms.
Cultural - branch that focueses on human behavior
Archaeology - studies material remains (usually from the past) to describe/explain human behavior.
Linguistic - branch that studies human language.
Artifacts
Any object made or modified by a human culture, and often recovered by an archologist. Examples include stone tools such as projectile points, pottery vessels such as amphorae, metal objects such as buttons or guns and items of personal adornment such as jewellery and clothing
Hypothesis
A tentative explanation of the relation b/t certain phenomena. A hunch.
Charles Darwin
(1809-1882)
Who/What/Sig?
Who/What: Scientest who discovered the theory that humans/animals are not fixed in their attributes, and that evolution can happen over time if conditions are needed to be meet.
Sig: Studies lead to Natural Selection. His book lead to Social Darwism.
Social Darwinism

Who/What/Sig?
Who: Herbert Spencer
What: Term used to describe a range of political ideologies which are held to be compatible with the concept that Charles Darwin's theory of evolution of biological traits in a population by natural selection can also be applied to competition between human societies or groups within a society.
Sig: Gave a way to justify social inequality as being meritocratic. At various times it has also been used to justify laissez-faire capitalism, imperialism, or racism.
'The Orgin of Species'

Who/What/Sig?
Who: Charles Darwin
What: A book that explains people/animals evolve as groups of organisms (populations), not individuals, through natural selection.
Sig: Made way for Social Darwinism, but asl explained that species are mutable, not fixed.
Natural Selection

Who/What?
Who: Charles Darwin
What: Explained in "The Origin of Species". TOoS in depth:
1. Happens when species produce offspring faster than food supply can increase.
2. Existence of biological variation.
3. Competition b/t individuals.
4. Thos w/ favorable traits have advantages.
5. Environment determines what is benifical.
6. NS depends upon successful reproduction.
7. Future traits maybe differ from ancestrial traits.
8. Geographic locations can change an isolated species.
Herbert Spencer

Who/What/Sig/Ex?
Who: Father of Social Darwinism
What: Coined the term "Survival of the Fittest" meaning that only the strogest/best/ruthless survive.
Sig: SotF used to justify ruthless behaviour.
Ex: Europeans taking over the Indians.
Survival of the Fittest

Who/What/Sig/Ex?
Who: Herbert Spencer
What: Means that only the strogest/best/ruthless survive.
Sig: SotF used to justify ruthless behaviour.
Ex: Europeans taking over the Indians.
Ernest Hootan

What/Sig/Ex?
What: Believed that Cephalic Index could indicate a person's propensity towards criminality.
Sig: Created a way to classify races/people by the shape of their heads.
Cephalic Index
Who: Ernest Hootan
What: Difference in head shape/size has significant meaning.
Sig: Created a way to classify races/people by the shape of their heads.
Ex: Wide heads = inferior
Narrow heads = Superior
Eugenics

Who/What/Sig/Ex?
Who: Francis Galton
What: A way to enhance the human race's physical and mental traits through 'selective breeding' or other similar means.
Sig: Many people had to go through forced sterlizations, or worse.
Ex: A woman wanting an intellegent man's sperm to have an intellegent baby.
Between 1907-1940 about 35k poor women were sterilzed.
Francis Galton

What/Sig?
What: Believed society should encrouage breeding b/t talented and discourage it in 'untalented'.
Sig: Lead to Involuntary Sterilizations (In USA mostly California). 35k poor woment Sterilized
Ernst Haekel

What?
What: Believed lower races psychologically near to animals than Europeans. They must have differ value.
Lebensborn

What/Ex?
What: Selective Breeding, which could lead to perks.
Ex: Swedish with blonde hair and blue eyes.
Wannsee Conference

Who/What?
Who: A large groupe of German civilians and officals.
What: Brought togeather other leaders to make the plan of exterminating Jews possible. Nazis.
Ethnocentrism

What?
What: Beleif that your culture's way is the right and only way. Fear of "the others" causes ethrocentrism.