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107 Cards in this Set

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relativism
opposite: absolutism
moral relativism
opposite: moral absolutism
cultural relativism
opposite: ethnocentrism

Each person's value system=result of his or her experience; it is learned.

The values that individuals learn differ from one society to another because of different learning experiences.

There are no universal values, but we should respect the values of each of the world's cultures.
linguistic determinism (the strong theory)
the structure of one's native language strongly influences or fully determines the world view one acquires
linguistic relativity (the weak theory)
structural differences in languages will be paralleled in non-linguistic cognitive habits
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Whorf tried to show ways that the structures of a particular language determined or influence thought in the heads of speakers of that language.
How could we test the worldview hypothesis?
Navaho experiments:
verbs for actions/substance like pouring
grouping: yellow/blue rope and yellow/blue sticks

Basic color terms:
(black/white, red, yellow/green, blue, brown, {gray, pink, orange, purple}), added in the same order, same focal points, widely different ranges
Some translation examples (French/English):
fleuve/rivière – "river"
mouton -- "sheep"/"mutton"
Branches of Linguistics
phonology – sounds
syntax – grammar
semantics – meaning (words)
Structuralism
school of linguistics: associated with Saussure, Roman Jakobson, Emile Benveniste

school of anthropology: associated especially with Claude Lévi-Strauss

influential across of wide range of disciplines, including philosophy and psychoanalysis

very different from what political scientists mean by “structuralism”

structuralism-the sound systems of language have been taken as conceptual models for understanding cultures, perceptions, and the very nature of the human mind
Arbitrariness of the Sign
associated with the work of Ferdinand de Saussure (Swiss linguist)

with the trivial exceptions of onomatopoeia and pictographic languages, neither written words nor spoken sounds resemble the thing they stand for
their meanings come from
convention
and
the context of a symbolic system
Phonemic
the entire set of possible sounds for use in human speech
Phonemes
the smallest psychologically significant unit of sound in a (particular) language, bundles of relations, of distinctive features
din/tin
voicing is the distinctive feature that differentiates the /d/ from the /t/ phonemic in English, perhaps makes no difference in another language)
top/stop
aspiration, (Thai, Hindi)
pão/pau
nasality is the distinctive feature that differentiates the vowel sound and makes a crucial linguistic difference in Portuguese, although not in English
What are some structural shifts over time?
historical linguists discovered that sound shifts tended to include the same distinctive feature across a language

for example, when /t/ shifted to /d/, /p/ shifted to /b/

gave Saussure the idea that meaning of words were similarly connected
Gifts
Outwardly free and voluntary; we often find that they are not, that they imply obligations.
What challenges our notion of a “free gift”?
immediate reciprocation

money as a gift

concern with or awareness of the value of a gift

tax status
the “free gift”?
ideology of the “free” gift: Jonathan Parry says that the free gift exists in state societies with a sharp division of labor

Why?
the prestige of academic “contributions”
public versus private gifts (corporate donations in schools, secret benefactors)
interest in seemingly religious or altruistic gifts (private expectations of return?)
A theory of reciprocity
(Marshall Sahlins)

generalized
-least “economic,” most moral
no explicit obligation
-sharing within the family is the classic example
balanced
-immediate, equal exchange
trade (barter, maybe)
treaties
-compensation
-taxation (in a democracy)
negative
-attempts to gain advantage, most “economic”
-haggling
-gambling
-theft
-warfare, pillaging
Hegemony
The process by which consent is manufactured has come to be called hegemony, the way that dominant groups or classes maintain their dominance and maintain a social system beneficial to them without force and perhaps without their explicit realization or the realization of dominated groups.
Willis’ argument
Counter-school, non-conformist groups known to teachers as “troublemakers,” to themselves as “the lads.”

These strategies show intelligence, creativity, independence, adaptability.
willis - rebel
Kinship
It's an “experience-distant” term for systems and notions related to the transmission of rights (political, economic, religious, sexual, child-rearing) from one generation to the next.
David Schneider's approach to kinship
He asks, what separates “kin” from other categories of people (neighbors, friends, lovers, strangers, celebrities, etc.)?

answer: blood and marriage
What do blood and marriage have in common?
SEX
What unites the conjugal/affinal and consanguineal domains?
The experience-near idiom of “love”
Difference between Catholic and Judaic
* Judaism stresses blood over code (nation, state, kinship the same, leads to confusion over "race" or "religion")

*Christianity stresses code over blood and the material substance of relatedness is diffused into a spiritual "love" and a spiritual family.
What separates "kinship" from "nationality" or "religion"?
Logically they are the same. Part of the reason why kinship is so important to us and why it leads to easily to ethnocentric views of other societies.
Primary components and letter symbols
Mother [M]
Father [F]
Sister [Z]
Brother [B]
Daughter [D]
Son [S]
Husband [H]
Wife [W]

Compound Strings
Mother's sister [MZ]
Mother's sister's daughter [MZD]
Sister's son [ZS].
unilineal systems
ego-focused, descent is traced through parents and ancestors of only one sex
cognatic systems
ego-focused, one can opt for one or more descent groups (also called a “ramages”) traced through either or both parents.
bilateral descent
ego-focused, no descent groups or lineages, symmetrical through mothers and fathers
Patrilineal descent
links relatives through males only (also called “agnatic”).
Matrilineal descent
links relatives through females only.
lineages
localized groups based on unilineal descent and that usually have some corporate powers
clans
composed of lineages, usually with an unknown or mythical ancestor
phratries
large group composed of clans
frats (composed of clammy...)
Double descent
both patrilineal and matrilineal descent, functionally distinct.
Parallel cousins
sets of cousins whose parents are siblings of the same sex; MZ's chldren, FB's children
Cross-cousins
sets of cousins whose parents are siblings of the opposite sex; FS's children, MB's children
Cousins
One set of parallel cousins is always in your descent group, one is always out. Both sets of cross-cousins are always out of your descent group.
Cognatic Descent
No formal rule or principle about whether an individual joins the lineage of mother or father.

Descent groups (ramages) are all those who trace back descent to a common ancestor.

Freedom to choose based on economic or political power.
Can overlap. Someone can be in more than one, even maximize the number of descent groups he/she belongs to.

One must perform labor and contribute to feasts in order to keep rights active.
Polynesian and sometimes Melanesian cultures tend to have cognatic descent groups.
Kwaio cognatic strategies
Everyone is related to a dozen or more territories by cognatic descent.

Several factors incline the system somewhat towards a patrilineal system:
-people generally choose the primary group of their mother or their father
-slight advantage to patrilineal connections
-virilocal residence means you are more connected to the land of your father's residence group
Kimi -- father Ted
Bilateral descent
Involves the inclusion of all of an individual's relatives within a given range. Bilateral systems are ego focused and are formed by tracing relationships from both parents throughout an ever widening network of kinship called a kindred.
descent theory—descriptive, genealogical
"Father" is extended to people who are like fathers in some way.
alliance theory
broad social categories: Since we (Americans) trace descent bilaterally and distinguish between lineal and collateral kin, we tend to use this as the basis for interpreting other cultures' kinship terminologies, but for a unilineal or cognatic system, perhaps the class ("male relative in the patriline or clan"; "marriageable woman") comes first.
Kinship Terminologies
-generally reciprocal:(equivalent terms between ego and alter)
-principles: gender, generation, lineage
-may distinguish lineal (on a direct line of descent, as in parents, children) from collateral (on a branch line, as in aunts, uncles, cousins) relatives
-six basic types, plus some odd-ball variations
-marriage residence practices may make relations other than descent more important, even in nominally unilineal systems
Eskimo
-bilateral
-Anglo-American system, lineage does not matter, nuclear family is important
relatively rare, in the sense of number of societies that use it
-lineal relatives: mother,father, brother, sister
-collateral relatives: aunt, uncle, cousin
Hawaiian
-generational
-Hawaii and other Malayo-Polynesian societies
-lineage does not matter, bilateral descent
-collaterality not expressed: mothers, fathers, sisters, brothers
Iroquois
-widespread, including rural China until very recently
-"mother"=Mo and MoZ
-"father"=Fa and FaBr
-"uncle"=MB
-"aunt"=FZ
-parallel cousins are "brothers" and "sisters"--children of "mothers" and "fathers"
-cross-cousins are "cousins"
typically favor cross-cousin
-marriage, lineage exogamy, to reinforce bonds with related lineages.
Crow
-Trobriand Islanders and the Hopi are classic examples
-certain relationships ignore generational differences
-strong matrilineal logic
-groups relations differently on mother's side and father's side
-no equivalent to "cousin"
parents' siblings as in Iroquois, and thus parallel cousins are Bro & Z
-all other women in the father's lineage are FaZ; all other men in the father's lineage are "fathers,"
-the relation to the father, of a different descent group, is what matters
-On the maternal side, the names for cross-cousins are different depending on the sex of EGO:
-male ego calls MoBr's children "son" or "daughter" (reciprocity: he is a FaZSo to them and would be called Fa or "father", they are like his own children, being fathered by men in his descent group);
-female ego calls them "nephew" and "niece" (she is a FaZDa to them and would be called FaZ or "aunt")
opposite of Iroquis
Omaha
-Nearly the reverse, patrilineal version of Crow terminology
-male ego calls FaZ's children "niece" and "nephew" (he is a MoBrSo to them and they call him MoBr or "uncle");
-female ego calls them "son" and "daughter" (she is a MoBrDa to them and would be called "mother")
Sudanese/Descriptive
-Sudan, many parts of rural China today
-a different, distinct term for each of the basic possibilities
-essentially a different emic term for each etic pairing (MoBr, FaZSo, etc.)
Rural Taiwan
-patrilineal, like most ethnic Han Chinese
-Men experience family and kinship as an unbroken line of descent through time.
-Women create no kinship links and leave their natal families either as adults to live with their new husband or as child brides (simpua adoption).
-A woman’s brother increasingly takes on an important role in her old household.
-In her new household, she fulfills the goals of her husband and mother-in-law: for her to produce sons
-Her husband will feel more loyalty to his mother than to her.
-By producing children, especially sons, she begins to make a new family for herself, a family which will survive her death only in the memory of her sons.
-She survives her lonely and difficult period as an “outsider” by building a network of women friends through interaction in kitchens, gardens, and at the communal water pump, a network that she can use to subtly shame her household into acceding to her wishes.
Hui’an/Huidong
-an ethnic region of far eastern Fujian province, southeastern China
-Like Taiwanese, they speak the Minnan dialect.
-considered especially “feudal” and “backward” in post-revolutionary China
-ethnically Han in larger sense, but distinct in local habits of dress and sexuality
- women delay conjugal cohabitation until a child is born, and delay/avoid sexual intercourse as much as possible to delay childbirth
-they form intense friendship networks with age-set peers
-this keeps them in the patrilineal/patriarchic household and apart from the demands of their mothers-in-law
delay sex
The Na
-life w/o father or husband
-an ethnic group in an isolated part of Yunnan Province, far southern China
-matrilineal, unlike most Chinese
-women live all their lives in the same household, together with brothers, mothers, perhaps maternal aunts & uncles
-no marriage, “in fact or word”!
-Children are raised by their mothers and all their matrilineal kin (especially maternal uncles).
fieldwork
intimate participation of behavior and the organization of social life
ethnography
the process of recording and interpreting another people's way of life
sociocultural systems
the pattern of residence, resource exploitation, and so on, characteristic of people
language
the conceptual code, the system of (mainly unconcious) knowledge that enables a speaker-hearing to produce and understand speec
speech
actual behavior - people making noises
deep structure
inner-face
(french)
surface structure
a quite different string of words and wordlike elements
(chinese)
lexicon
mental dictionary
ethnoscience
the aim has been to analyze folk taxoonomies
folk taxonomies
a conceptual system organized hierarchically, in a "kind of relationships"
ponential analysis
methode that seeks to find districtive features that, in combinations, would serve to define uniquely each term within such a set of contrasting terms
metacommunication
messages about messages
temperament
very widely between individuals
neoevolutionary
hunting and gathering people are viewed as the first rung on a ladder of societal scale and complexity
systems theory models
lookin at humans-in-environmental over long time spans
neo-marxism
sought to broaden the understanding marched by marx, on the basic of both the events of subsequent decades and radical advances in human knowledge, in the physical, biological, and social scineces
production
process whereby the world is engaged and transformed by human labor
means of production
in these socities, land, tools, planning materials, technology, and megical knowledge, are mainly collectively held by groups
mode of production
relations bt production and distributions, command over surplus labor and its products, and access to the means of production
infrostructure (base)
economic system constistutes
perstructure
the institutions that sustain and perpetuate the forces and relations of production
social classes
the rulling clss controls the system thru state ap=paratues of repression and foce that ex-tract food surplus and keep control over the means of production
social reproduction
a system of prodction that is not automatically sustained and perpetuated across generations
affines
in laws
double descent
when corporate partrilineal descent groups and matrilineal descent groups occure in the same society
social stratification
divisons of kindas of people
strata
system of social stratafication cut across the whole society
caste
difererentiation of a society
Case Study: Qolla Aggression
-Quolla and other Aymara-speaking people in South American Andes have been described as: violent, hostile, agressive
-Bolton found that there is a link between chronic hypoglycemio and agressive havior
The First-Born Among the Tallensi
-tallensi=people of Ghana, descent and inheritance pass from father to son
-it is the first born son and secondarily the first born daughter, whose birth signals the end of the uphill path of a person's life leading to senility and death
-from age 5-6 first-born son may not eat from the same dish as father, may not wear father's cap or tunic, carry his quiver, or use his bow, and he may not look into his father's granary
-adolecance- they may not meet in the entrance of the house
-same with firstborn daughter and mother
-after parents die, son can acheive full maturity and make sacrifices
-Meyer Fortes
!Kung San Social Organization
-!Kung are hunter gatherers living in the forbidding Kalahari Desert of southern Africa
-small scattered bands, made up of small clusters of families, of people each with their own teritory
-each band has a headman
-people may join bands if they dont leave
Bands!
The Ecology of Tsembaga Maring Subsistence
-the Maring are a people living in two large river valleys, the Simbai and Jimi, in New Guinea
-one group studied by Rappaport=Tsembaga, a local group of 200
-they are horticulturalists
-they build garden by clearing the forest
Iban Agriculture
-Iban communities consist of long-houses, the component apartments of which are occupied by separate families
-they cultivate dry rice
-the tribes move over the years
-desire for virgin land to express a knowledge of rich subsidence it provides...secure rights over forest territory
Basseri Nomands of Southern Iran
-pastoral, tent-dwelling numbering about 16,000
-they migrate seasonally; mirgration pattern is shaped by physical environment
-their economy rests on sheep and goats
-family groups, concieved as tents, are the main units of production and consumption...represented by male heads, hold full rights
-higher levels - "tira" or sections, that are divided into families
-membership in an ouland is determined by descent of male line, and structure of section is male line too
Karimajong Pastoralism
-Pastoralists in northearnern uganda
-cattle provides subsistance, by transforming the energy stored in grasses, herbs, and shrubs of a difficult environment -- blood and milk
-cultivation of sorghum provides secondary subsistance
-they adapt to harsh environment
Tsembaga Culture as an Adaptive System
-Rappaport
-pig-raising
-ritual cycles help preserve the ecosystem, maintain relations between local groups, redistribute land resouces in relation to population and distribute resources
TeseBAGa (bag the pig)
Warfare Male Supremacy, Protein Scarcity and Population in Amazonia
-tropical forest peoples of greater Amazonia have revealed high levels of murderous warfare between villages
-also there is a high level of if intra group violence between males
-harris and w.t divale: "male supremacist complex"
Aztec Human Sacrifice and Cannibolism
-Harner suggests that the development of Aztec human sacrfice is a consquence of heavy population pressure in availibility of wild game, and absance of domesticated herbivore as a source of animal protein
Aztec Human Sacrifice and Cannibolism
-Harner suggests that the development of Aztec human sacrfice is a consquence of heavy population pressure in availibility of wild game, and absance of domesticated herbivore as a source of animal protein
Kuru and its consqeunces
-new ginea fore, about 1% of population, aminly women, died annually from kuru...degenerative disease
-sex ratio was imbalanced as much as 3 to 1 in some areas
-the fore explained kyry as caysed bt sorcery
-cause frantic system of marrige and social organization, also when a woman died, the menw ere likely to make war on their neighbors
-studies show kuru is called by an agent that attacks CNS
-eating the brain of victim transmits but natural section did not weed up this ritual
Trobriand Systems of Production
-Trobriand islands
-major crop = yams
-the annual cycling of the yam season structures many of the aspects of Trobriand life: trade expeditions, warfare, ceremonies, and even sexual life
-
Tolai Tambu
-People of the Melanesian island of New Britain who emerged as the Tolai
-powerful and prosperous cutlural force in of modern Papua New Guinea, originally comprised a chain of communities of cultural close cousins, tied together by regional trade, intermarrige, feast-giving, and ceremonial observance
-tambu, stung shell discs that served as a currency and ceremonial valuables
-tambu is closes tied up with cultural treatment of death
Nuer "Ghost Marriage"
two forms
1. chilren she bears from sexual relations with her second husband are socially defined as the offspring of her dead first husband
2. old and important woman may "marry" a girl, who bears children by lovers..old woman becomes father
Tallensi Descent and Kinship 188
Tallensi of Ghana
-with the restrictions involvin new born children
-they emphasize patrilineal desent so much that they are cited as a classic "patrilineal society"
-BUT they are also bounded together by complex webs of kinship on the maternal side as well as paternal side
-man has interest in father's descent group AND mother's (secondary)
-when memebers make a sacrifice to ancestors, both female and male descendent partake
-also, not only are memebers of patrilineal descent groups forbidden to marry one another, but any man and woman who are descended from same ancestor by any chain (male or female) links cannot marry
->this says they use cognitive descent, pat descent and bilateral kinship
Hopi Social Organization
-highly intricate social and ceremonial organizations
-major grouping = exogamous matrilianal clans, each tracing relationship to a particular animal, plant or natural phenomenon
-the core of the local groups is a line of matrilineally related women...husbands are outsiders
Iroquois Matriliny and the Power of Women
-example of "kinship state"
-matrilineally related nuclear families that together were nuclear families
-women: cultivated plants, while men: hunted and fished
-matrilineages were in turn grouped into exogamous matrilineal clans
-clans were not localized in a single village: each village had matrillineages from several clans
-mats were coperate - entailed ties and obligations of kinship
-politcal power -- 5 tribes was governed by a concil of 50 schemas , (with chiefs etc) - women played powerful role
Tallensi Descent and Kinship 188
Tallensi of Ghana
-with the restrictions involvin new born children
-they emphasize patrilineal desent so much that they are cited as a classic "patrilineal society"
-BUT they are also bounded together by complex webs of kinship on the maternal side as well as paternal side
-man has interest in father's descent group AND mother's (secondary)
-when memebers make a sacrifice to ancestors, both female and male descendent partake
-also, not only are memebers of patrilineal descent groups forbidden to marry one another, but any man and woman who are descended from same ancestor by any chain (male or female) links cannot marry
->this says they use cognitive descent, pat descent and bilateral kinship
Hopi Social Organization
-highly intricate social and ceremonial organizations
-major grouping = exogamous matrilianal clans, each tracing relationship to a particular animal, plant or natural phenomenon
-the core of the local groups is a line of matrilineally related women...husbands are outsiders
Iroquois Matriliny and the Power of Women
-example of "kinship state"
-matrilineally related nuclear families that together were nuclear families
-women: cultivated plants, while men: hunted and fished
-matrilineages were in turn grouped into exogamous matrilineal clans
-clans were not localized in a single village: each village had matrillineages from several clans
-mats were coperate - entailed ties and obligations of kinship
-politcal power -- 5 tribes was governed by a concil of 50 schemas , (with chiefs etc) - women played powerful role
exogamy
a rule that requires marriage outside a particular group or category is technically
exogemous
a group or category whose members are prohibited from marrying one another