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40 Cards in this Set

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What 3 things make up LANGUAGE?
1. FUNCTION - Discourse (speaking & writing)) & Pragmatics (verbal & non-verbal)
2. STRUCTURE - Phonology, Morphology, Semantics, & Syntax
3. VARIATION - Styles/Registers (depend on the context & purpose)
The way in which speech sounds form patterns; the study of the "sound system" of a language; comprised of phonemes, intonation patterns, stress, & modulation
What is a phoneme?
It is the smallest unit of sound that is used to make up a language; e.g. "Cat" has 3 phonemes c-a-t
Variations in the the pronunciation of phrases or sentences that follow certain patterns; e.g. changes in the "pitch" of the voice, length & speech "rhythm"; changes in pitch can change the meaning of a sentence (e.g. "You are going to school! or ?)
The process that words, phrases & sentences go through to change the "tonal center" from one place to another; its helps give language structure, direction & variety (e.g. narrative vs. poetry vs. rap)
What 4 Sub-systems of language determine MEANING?
1. PHONOLOGY - putting sounds together to make words
2. MORPHOLOGY - meaning of units (words)
3. SYNTAX - structure of sentences
4. SEMANTICS - meanings of individual words, phrases & sentences
MORPHOLOGY is the study of the meaning of units in a language.
What is a MORPHEME?

How are morphemes related to a Roots,Affix's, Compound Words, Inflectional endings & Cognates?
A MORPHEME is the smallest unit (in the word) in the building blocks of meaning. (e.g. dog = 1 morpheme; dogs = 2 morphemes)
ROOT - base of a word
AFFIX - prefix or suffix (e.g. re-construct-ed)
COMPOUND WORD - word made of 2 free morphemes (e.g. butterfly); aka "lexical morphemes
INFLECTIONAL ENDINGS: 8 suffixes: -s,-es, -'s, -ing, -ed, -en, -er, -est
COGNATES - words in related languages from the same ancestral root (e.g. "father" and "pater" in Latin)
How can MORPHOLOGY inhibit communication?
Irregularites in English language are difficult for ELs (e.g. plural of "mouse" is "mice;" therefore, it is important to teach exceptions to the rules
How can PHONOLOGY inhibit communication?
When a student's primary language sound system differs from the English sound sytems, it is difficult to transfer what is not in their sound system and meaning can change when they are speaking & making different sounds to a word
What is SYNTAX?


SYNTAX is the study of the structure of sentences and the rules that govern the correctness of a sentence (e.g. "beautiful girl" vs. "chica bonita")

SYNTACTIC CLASSES: nouns & prepositions (link pronouns & nouns)

SYNTACTIC RULES are the pattern relations that govern the way the words in a sentence come together.
What is the implication of SYNTACTIC RULES?
Students need to be exposed to different SENTENCE PATTERNS, from simple to complex in oral & written form in order to acquire the patterns; this is for higher level ELs

What are 4 DIFFICULTIES with semantics?
SEMANTICS is the study of meanings of individual words & of larger units such as phrases & sentences.

4 Difficulties w/ Semantics:
1. Multiple Meanings (e.g. tire)
2. False Cognates (e.g. words that sound the same in different languages, but have different meanings--embarrassed & embarasado [pregnant]
3. Idioms - e.g. "It's raining cats & dogs"
4. Language Ambiguities - words, phrases or sentences that have multiple meanings
What are some of the difficulties with SEMANTICS for ELs?
1. Transfer issues
2. Cultural reflection in primary language (e.g. concept of time)
3. Understanding that there are "universals" in all languages
What are 4 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS of language?
1. To amuse
2. To inform
3. To control - e.g. command
4. To persuade
What are 7 ACADEMIC FUNCTIONS of language (across ALL content areas)?
NOTE: Each of these need to be EXPLICITLY taught to ELs (i.e. when to use each one)

1. Describing
2. Defining
3. Explaining
4. Comparing/Contrasting
5. Analyzing
6. Predicting
7. Persuading

What are 4 types of LANGUAGE VARIATION?
Language variation occurs because of time, travel & economics/war.

4 Types of Language Variation:
1. DIALECTS - differs in linguistic features (pronunciation, vocabulary)
2. HISTORICAL VARIATION - language changes across time & context
3. SOCIAL LANGUAGE - e.g. playground
4. ACADEMIC LANGUAGE - content specific
What are 7 factors that influence a speaker's or writer's LANGUAGE VARIATION (e.g. social vs. academic)
1. Purpose of language (e.g. to persuade, infom, entertain...)
2. Age
3. Gender
4. Culture
5. Education level
6. Socioeconomic Status
7. Vocation
What are some way to promote COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE in social & academic settings?
Start with SPOKEN (oral)and then move to WRITTEN.

SPOKEN: use sentence frames, more informal, more idiomatic expressions; (strategies: ask for clarification, paraphrase)

WRITTEN: use less idioms, more formal, more linear, (Strategies: Syntax, 5 paragraph essay)

SPOKEN & WRITTEN: guided by topic, theme or idea; (Strategies: formal & informal, transistional words)
What are 4 things to consider when analyzing text (e.g. selecting textbooks)
1. Level of difficulty
2. Language structures
3. Writing style
4. Complexity of syntax
What is PRAGMATICS & why is this important when teaching ELs?
The use of language in a SOCIAL CONTEXT. It is important for ELs to understand the social rules of American culture in order to fully communicate. These need to be explicitly taught! It is also important for teachers to be aware of what the pragmatics are in other cultures so that they don't make incorrect assumptions & assessments about students' learning & behavior.
What are 9 Pragmatic Features of Oral & Written Language?
1.GESTURES (e.g. peace symbol & using index finger for "come here")
2.FACIAL EXPRESSIONS (lot of smiling in U.S. is considered superficial in other cultures)
3. EYE CONTACT (considered disrespectful in many cultures)
4. PROXEMICS/DISTANCE BETWEEN SPEAKERS (20-24" is comforatble in U.S.)
5. TOUCHING (head patting & touching is considered personal in many cultures)
6. STYLES/REGISTERS (how you speak depends on audience)
7. DIALECT (variation among speakers of same language: e.g. "I'm stuffed" in Australia mreans I'm pregnant)
8. FIGURES OF SPEECH/IDIOMS (e.g. "y'all come back now;")
9. SILENCE (in Asia it is a sign of respect)
What are 5 factors that affect a speaker's or writer's choice of PRAGMATIC FEATURES?
2. SOCIAL: what gestures are appropriate-hug,smile,wave...
3. SETTING: formal vs. informal style
4. GOALS: direct [lecture] vs. indirect [role-playing]style)
5. PURPOSE: oral vs. written
6. SUBJECT MATTER: Informal (P.E.) vs. Formal (Math)
In evaluating an ELD program, what are 6 things that should be taught?
1. Language Systems (forml & informal)
2. Social Language
3. Academic Language
4. Oral Discourse
5. Written Discourse
6. Social-Linguistic Competence
What are 2 CONTEMPORARY THEORIES about how language is learned?
l. CONSTRUCTIVISM: Vygotsky's theory that we all construct our own perspective of the world based on individual experience; we can only learn from a "more capable peer" (student or teacher) what is in our "zone of proximal development" (ZPD)
2. COGNITIVISM: Gross' theory that knowledge is viewed as symbolic mental constructions in our minds & learning is the process of committing these symbolic representations to memory
What are 2 theories based on COGNITIVISM?
1. METACOGNITION: learning occurs through the process of cognitive operations (e.g. being aware of what you're learning, reflect on how you learn best...)
2. COGNITIVE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE LEARNING APPROACH (CALLA): explicit teaching of learning strategies within academic subject areas
What are 4 theories based on CONSTRUCTIVISM?
1. SOCIAL INERACTIONIST: learning is social & you learn by interacting & communicating with others
2. SOCIAL-CULTURAL: learning requires specific cultural/language knowlege
3. INTERACTIONIST: one of the most significant mode of discourse is conversation & thus ELs need to learn the rules that govern conversation
4. INTERLANGUAGE: ELs learn an intermediate language between their native language & their 2nd language (e.g. Spanglish); they are constantly progressing toward increased proficiency
What are the 4 stages that everyone goes through when acquiring their FIRST LANGUAGE (L1)?
1. BABBLING: 6 mos. - 1 yr.
2. HOLOPHRASTIC: use 1 word to mean a whole sentence; e.g. "dog"
3. TWO-WORD: about 2 yrs.; e.g. "car go"
4. TELEGRAPHIC: stringing more than 2 words together; e.g. "Cathy build house"
1. BEGINNING (B): know a few words & can write a few words
2. EARLY INTERMEDIATE (EI): describe a picture & can match simple words to it; write a few sentences
3. INTERMEDIATE (I): use difficult vocab. in a complete sentence; read a story & recall details & answer literal questions; write simple sentences
4. EARLY ADVANCED (EA): understand & follow difficult instructions; reading - sequencing, generalizing, making predictions; writing - fluent sentences, well-organized, accurate transitions
5. ADVANCED (A): understand & read more complex things; writing is well organized with vivid vocab. & no significant grammatical errors
Which 2nd language proficiency levels are considred BICS & which are considered CALPS?
BICS: level 1 (beginning), level 2 (Early Intermediate) & level 3 (Intermediate)

CALPS: level 4 (Early Advanced) & level 5 (Advanced)

NOTE: Many ELs get stuck at level 3 and therefore learn BICs, but not CALPs!
1. ACQUISITION-LEARNING: learning a 2nd language s/b like aquiring a 1st lang. & thus it is NOT impt. to learn the rules of the lang. or to be corrected
2. MONITOR: when learning a new lang., we develop a monitor or editor that checks for accuracy b4 communicating
3. NATURAL ORDER: we acquire grammatical structures in a fairly predictable order, but we cannot teach to that order
4. INPUT: lang. is acquired when we understand messages; lang. must contain "comprehensible input"; i + 1 (i=current competence level)
5. AFFECTIVE FILTER: impt. to reduce anxiety in order to inc. motivation & self-confidence
Even though it has been extremely criticized, it provided the theoretical base for the NATUAL APPROACH to leanring. e.g. students will learn some lang. unconsciously & will need rules for some parts; ELs go through a predicatable order in lang. development; a "natural," lang. rich environ. facilitates lang. development; teachers need to use a variety of techniques & modalities, including visual & kinesthetic; a non-threatening & encouraging environ. promotes lerning & raises self-esteem
Cummins believes in CUP--not SUP:
- CUP: "Common Underlying Proficiency" - competence in L1 provide a basis for competence in L2
- SUP: "Separate Underlying Proficiency" - proficiency in L1 does NOT transfer to L2
-BICS: "Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills" are CONTEXT EMBEDDED bec. the situation provides cues for further understanding
-CALP: "Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency" is CONTEXT REDUCED bec. there are few concrete cues that assist in comprehension; CALPs involves the 5Cs (communication, conceptualization, critical thinking, context & culture)
What are 8 STRATEGIES learners use in developing a 2nd language?
1. Repetition
2. Memorization (e.g. songs, rhymes...)
3. Formulaic Expression (words/phrases used as automatic speech units--e.g. the question is, more or less...)
4. Elaboration
5. Self-Monitoring (correcting own errors)
6. Appeal for Assistance (asking for help)
7. Request for Clarification
8. Role-play (e.g. playing teacher)
What are 3 goals for teaching LANGUAGE MINORITY STUDENTS?
1. English proficiency
2. Academic achievement
3. Positive self-conceft
What are 5 characteristics of BICS?
1. social conversation
2. playground talk
3. everyday conversation
4. family talk
5. friend talk
What are 5 skills taught in CALPS?
1. higher-order thinking
2. abstract thinking
3. academic language
4. test skills
5. problem solving
What are the "ONE-BALLOON" & "TWO-BALLOON" theories?
ONE-BALLOON: CUP (language is developed in "1 area" & there is a connection bet. L1 & L2)
TWO-BALLOON: SUP (lang. is developed in 2 separate areas & when 1 lang. is emphasized, the other is reduced)
Whar are 3 PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS that influence intstruction?
1. BACKGROUND FACTORS: validate name; age of EL; L1 proficiency; type of bigingualism (limited, partial, proficient; L2 experience; CELDT - access L2 level;prior academic success; likes & dislikes
2. SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL - Self-Esteem (honor L1 & emphasize fluency over accuracy); Anxiety Level(class s/b warm & friendly; peer work, small group work, games, simulations, alternative assessments); Motivatiom (use pep talks & encouraging phrases for ELs to tell themselves)attitudes of learner
3. COGNITIVE - Cognitive Style (visual/verbal & holistic/analytic); Learning Styles (competitive vs. cooperative; dependent vs. independent; participant vs. avoidant); Learning Strategies (code switching has many benefits)
What are SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS that influence instruction?
1. FAMILY ACCULTURATIN & USE OF L1 & L2 (visit student's home & encourage parent involvment)
2. FAMILY VALUES & SCHOOL VALUES - (teachers need to feel comfortable about values in students' culture & include them in classroom)
3. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT - Tracking (unfair opportunity for ELs); Testing Adaptations (test in L1; extended time); Curriculum (challenging & meaningful); Pedagogy (teaching s/b understandable & engaging); Physical School Structure (well-cared for); Disciplinary Policies (channel disturbances into cooperative groups that all students to express themselves); Limited Role of students, teachers, family& community (need communication bet. family & school)
4. SOCIOCULTURAL SUPPORT FOR L1 IN CLASSROOM - Cooperative Learning has many positive results; feature primary language on bulletin boards, in reports & involve L1 speakers as guests & volunteers0