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50 Cards in this Set

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Access Modeling
Used to verify that data requirements (represented in the form of an entity-relationship diagram) support the data demands of process requirements (represented in data flow diagrams and process specifications.)
Affinity Diagram
A group process that takes large amounts of language data, such as a list developed by brainstorming, and divides it into categories.
None
Application
A single software product that may or may not fully support a business function.
Audit
This is an inspection/assessment activity that verifies
compliance with plans, policies, and procedures, and ensures
that resources are conserved. Audit is a staff function; it serves
as the "eyes and ears" of management.
None
Backlog
Work waiting to be done; for IT this includes new systems to be
developed and enhancements to existing systems. To be
included in the development backlog, the work must have been
cost-justified and approved for development.
None
Baseline
A quantitative measure of the current level of performance.
Benchmarking
Comparing your company’s products, services, or processes
against best practices, or competitive practices, to help define
superior performance of a product, service, or support process.
None
Benefits Realization Test
A test or analysis conducted after an application is moved into production to determine whether it is likely to meet the originating business case.
Black-Box Testing
A test technique that focuses on testing the functionality of the program without knowledge of how the system is constructed; usually
data or business process driven.
None
Branch Testing
A test method that requires that each possible branch on each decision point be executed at least once.
Brainstorming
A group process for generating creative and diverse ideas.
None
Boundary Value Analysis
A data selection technique in which test data is chosen from the
“boundaries” of the input or output domain classes, data
structures, and procedure parameters. Choices often include
the actual minimum and maximum boundary values, the
maximum value plus or minus one, and the minimum value
plus or minus one.
None
Bug
A general term for all software defects or errors.
Candidate
An individual who has met eligibility requirements for a
credential awarded through a certification program, but who
has not yet earned that certification through participation in the
required skill and knowledge assessment instruments.
None
Cause-Effect Graphing
A tool used to derive test cases from specifications. A graph that relates causes (or input conditions) to effects is generated. The information in the graph is converted into a decision table where the columns are the cause-effect combinations. Unique rows represent test cases.
Certificant
An individual who has earned a credential awarded through a certification program.
Certification
A voluntary process instituted by a nongovernmental agency by
which individual applicants are recognized for having achieved
a measurable level of skill or knowledge. Measurement of the
skill or knowledge makes certification more restrictive than
simple registration, but much less restrictive than formal
licensure.
None
Checklists
A series of probing questions about the completeness and
attributes of an application system. Well-constructed checklists
cause evaluation of areas, which are prone to problems. It both
limits the scope of the test and directs the tester to the areas in
which there is a high probability of a problem.
None
Checkpoint Review
Held at predefined points in the development process to evaluate whether certain quality factors (critical success factors) are being adequately addressed in the system being built. Independent experts for the purpose of identifying problems conduct the reviews as early as possible.
Checksheet
A form used to record data as it is gathered.
Client
The customer that pays for the product received and receives the benefit from the use of the product.
Coaching
Providing advice and encouragement to an individual or individuals to promote a desired behavior.
Code Comparison
One version of source or object code is compared to a second version. The objective is to identify those portions of computer programs that have been changed. The technique is used to identify those segments of an application program that have been altered as a result of a program change.
Compiler-Based Analysis
Most compilers for programming languages include diagnostics
that identify potential program structure flaws. Many of these
diagnostics are warning messages requiring the programmer to
conduct additional investigation to determine whether or not the
problem is real. Problems may include syntax problems,
command violations, or variable/data reference problems.
These diagnostic messages are a useful means of detecting
program problems, and should be used by the programmer.
None
Complete Test Set
A test set containing data that causes each element of prespecified
set of Boolean conditions to be true. In addition, each
element of the test set causes at least one condition to be true.
None
Completeness
The property that all necessary parts of an entity are included.
Often, a product is said to be complete if it has met all
requirements.
None
Complexity-Based Analysis
Based upon applying mathematical graph theory to programs and preliminary design language specification (PDLs) to determine a unit's complexity. This analysis can be used to measure and control complexity when maintainability is a desired attribute. It can also be used to estimate test effort required and identify paths that must be tested.
Compliance Checkers
A parse program looking for violations of company standards.
Statements that contain violations are flagged. Company
standards are rules that can be added, changed, and deleted
as needed.
None
Condition Coverage
A white-box testing technique that measures the number of, or
percentage of, decision outcomes covered by the test cases
designed. 100% condition coverage would indicate that every
possible outcome of each decision had been executed at least
once during testing.
None
Configuration Management Tools
Tools that are used to keep track of changes made to systems and all related artifacts. These are also known as version control tools.
Configuration Testing
Testing of an application on all supported hardware and
software platforms. This may include various combinations of
hardware types, configuration settings, and software versions.
None
Consistency
The property of logical coherence among constituent parts. Consistency can also be expressed as adherence to a given set of rules.
Consistent Condition Set
A set of Boolean conditions such that complete test sets for the conditions uncover the same errors.
Control Flow Analysis
Based upon graphical representation of the program process.
In control flow analysis, the program graph has nodes, which
represent a statement or segment possibly ending in an
unresolved branch. The graph illustrates the flow of program
control from one segment to another as illustrated through
branches. The objective of control flow analysis is to determine
potential problems in logic branches that might result in a loop
condition or improper processing.
None
Conversion Testing
Validates the effectiveness of data conversion processes,
including field-to-field mapping, and data translation.
None
Customer
The individual or organization, internal or external to the
producing organization that receives the product.
None
Correctness
The extent to which software is free from design and coding
defects (i.e., fault-free). It is also the extent to which software
meets its specified requirements and user objectives.
None
Cost of Quality (COQ)
Money spent beyond expected production costs (labor,
materials, equipment) to ensure that the product the customer
receives is a quality (defect free) product. The Cost of Quality
includes prevention, appraisal, and correction or repair costs.
None
Coverage-Based Analysis
A metric used to show the logic covered during a test session,
providing insight to the extent of testing. The simplest metric for
coverage would be the number of computer statements
executed during the test compared to the total number of
statements in the program. To completely test the program
structure, the test data chosen should cause the execution of
all paths. Since this is not generally possible outside of unit
test, general metrics have been developed which give a
measure of the quality of test data based on the proximity to
this ideal coverage. The metrics should take into consideration
the existence of infeasible paths, which are those paths in the
program that have been designed so that no data will cause the
execution of those paths.
None
Cyclomatic Complexity
The number of decision statements, plus one.
Data Dictionary
Provides the capability to create test data to test validation for the defined data elements. The test data generated is based upon the attributes defined for each data element. The test data will check both the normal variables for each data element as well as abnormal or error conditions for each data element.
DD (Decision-to-Decision) Path
A path of logical code sequence that begins at a decision statement or an entry and ends at a decision statement or an exit.
Debugging
The process of analyzing and correcting syntactic, logic, and
other errors identified during testing.
None
Decision Coverage
A white-box testing technique that measures the number of, or
percentage of, decision directions executed by the test case
designed. 100% decision coverage would indicate that all
decision directions had been executed at least once during
testing. Alternatively, each logical path through the program
can be tested. Often, paths through the program are grouped
into a finite set of classes, and one path from each class is
tested.
None
Decision Table
A tool for documenting the unique combinations of conditions and associated results in order to derive unique test cases for validation testing.
Defect
Operationally, it is useful to work with two definitions of a defect:
• From the producer's viewpoint a defect is a product requirement that has not been met or a product attribute possessed by a product or a function performed by a product that is not in the statement of requirements that define the product;
• From the customer's viewpoint a defect is anything that causes customer dissatisfaction, whether in the statement of requirements or not.
None
Defect Tracking Tools
Tools for documenting defects as they are found during testing and for tracking their status through to resolution.
Design Level
The design decomposition of the software item (e.g., system,
subsystem, program, or module).
None
Desk Checking
The most traditional means for analyzing a system or a program. Desk checking is conducted by the developer of a system or program. The process involves reviewing the complete product to ensure that it is structurally sound and that the standards and requirements have been met. This tool can also be used on artifacts created during analysis and design.
Driver
Code that sets up an environment and calls a module for test.