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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
geography of Mesopotamia
- "land between the rivers" (between the Tigris and Euphrates)
- part of the Fertile Crescent
- because the land was so rich, people became farmers
Fertile Crescent
W: Mediterranean Sea
SE: Persian Gulf
NE: Zagros Mountains
S: Syrian Desert
organization of ancient Sumerian society
- many independent city-states, each with its own leaders and government
- kings were believed to be chosen by gods (e.g. Gilgamesh)
- developed many laws to facilitate the creation of irrigation systems, ziggurats, public buildings, etc
Gilgamesh
- ruled Uruk, in Sumer, between 2700 B.C. and 2500 B.C.
- wanted to learn the meaning of life, traveled widely to find out
- stories and legends were built up around his travels (The Epic of Gilgamesh)
Assyrian Empire
- Assyrian empire first conquered northern Mesopotamia all the way to the Mediterranean Sea (1000 B.C., King Adad-Nirari)
- then Assyrian empire conquered Babylonia (745 B.C., King Tiglath-Pileser)
- but their rule was unpopular, Chaldeans of Babylonia sacked the king (627 B.C.)
Babylonian Empire
- Chaldeans of Babylonia sacked the Assyrian king and established Babylonian empire (627 B.C.)
- Nebuchadnezzar expanded Babylonian empire into Syria and Phoenicia (605 B.C. to 562 B.C.)
- Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, invaded and conquered Babylonia (550 B.C.)
Nebuchadnezzar
- king of Babylonian Empire 605 to 562 B.C.
- expanded empire into Syria and Phoenicia
- best known for the hanging gardens of Babylon
- attacked and burned Jerusalem sending thousands of Jews to Babylonia as slaves
ziggurat
- largest building constructed by ancient Sumerians
- huge, pyramid-shaped, mud-brick temple
- at the top was a shrine to the city's special god
Enlil
- main god of ancient Sumerians
- controlled the wind, storms, and rain
Ea
- second most important god of ancient Sumerians
- controlled the waters
- god of wisdom
inventions of ancient Sumerians
- writing (cuneiform - wedge shaped symbols written onto wet clay tablets)
- irrigation
- wheel
- sailboats
- measurement: iku (land unit corresponding to our acre), quart, hour and minute
- concept of place value
class in Sumer
- upper: king, priests, other important people
- middle (largest): artisans and merchants
- low: slaves b/c of war or as a form of punishment
Code of Hammurabi
- laws created by Hammurabi that covered all areas of conduct
- Hammurabi united lower Mesopotamia into Babylonia in 1760 B.C., ruled Mesopotamia as one large empire
- part of Babylonian empire
Sargon of Akkad
- said to be the son of sheepherders who spoke Akkadian
- founded the city of Akkad and conquered northern Mesopotamia and other lands
- said to have created the world's first empire (around 2500 B.C.)