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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
(1800s) First true pioneer of modern digital computing machines
Worked on two prototype calculating machines
-Difference Engine
-Analytical Engine
Difference Engine
A special-purpose machine (designed to calculate and print navigational tables)
Used the “method of differences” to solve polynomials
Analytical Engine
A general-purpose machine(programmable)
Based on the idea of the Jacquard loom
Fabric pattern stored on punch cards
Had the basic parts of every modern computer
Input and Output
“Mill” (processor)
“Store” (memory)
(1936-43) designed number of general-purposecomputing machines
Used electromechanical relay switches
(Not electronic yet)
No longer based on levers and gears
Aiken and Hopper
(1944) Harvard Mark I
Used by the Navy for ballistic and gunnery table calculations
Electromechanical relays
(1939)ABC machine
First electronic digital computing machine (vacuum tubes instead of relays–smaller & faster)
A special-purpose machine (for solving simultaneous equations)
First to use binary numbers
Mechanical Devices
The very first computing devices used mechanical levers and dials
Electronic Relays
After electricity, (1835)Electrical Relays
A great improvement over mechanical levers and gears
Slow, heavy, prone to fouling
Electronic Vacuums
(1940s)Electronic Vacuum tubes began to be used
Very hot and prone to failure
Electronic Transistor
(1950s) Electronic Transistor
“Solid state”
Smaller, faster, more reliable, cheaper than vacuum tubes
Intergrated Circuits
(1960s)Integrated Circuits
Large numbers of transistors on a single chip of silicon
VLSI (very large scale integration)
(Today) VLSI (very large scale integration) circuits
Over 1,000,000,000 transistors on a single, tiny chip
Mauchly and Eckert
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) First electronic, general-purpose, digital computer
Manually programmed
Commissioned by the US Army during WWII for computing ballistic firing tables
Manually programmed by boards, switches, and “digit trays”
von Neumann
(1945) Developed the Stored Program concept
No more manual programming
Published his ideas in 1945
(1949)von Neumann, Mauchley and Eckert design EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer) at U. Penn
Used to crack the Nazis’ Enigma code
(1951)UNIVAC 1 Mauchley & Eckert
First commercial, general-purpose computer system
Vacuum tubes
Liquid mercury memory tanks
IMB System/360
(1964)IBM System/360
Solid-state circuits(transistors and integrated circuits)
Family of compatible models
Defined the idea of“mainframe” for decades
DEC PDP series
(1970’s)DEC PDP Series
Mainframe performance at a fraction of the cost
Cray 1
(1976)Cray 1
High-performance systems for “number crunching”
Advanced designs