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118 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
arousal theory
a view of crime suggesting that people who have a high arousal level seek powerful stimuli from their enviornment, leading to violence and aggression.
biosocial theory
focuses on the interaction between biological and social factors as they relate to crime.
control balance theory
a development theory that attributes deviant behavior to an imbalance between the amount of control and individual has and recieves
cultural deviance theory
branch of social structure theories that sees strain and disorganization together to create a unique lower-class culture
deterrence theory
if the probability of arrest, conviction, and sanctioning increases, crime rates should decline.
developmental theory
developmental factors including biological, social and psychological change affect criminal career over life course
deviant place theory
people become victims when the reside in socially disorganized, high-crime areas.
differential association theory
Sutherland's theory, criminal acts are related to a person's exposure to an excess amount of antisocial attitudes and values
differential reinforcement theory
explains crime as a learned behavior, differential assocaiation along with psychological learning theory
general strain theory
multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to produce criminality
general theory of crime
developmental theory that modifies social control theory by integrating concepts of biosocial, psychological, routine activities, and rational choice
human nature theory
personal traits such as genetic make-up, intelligence, and body build, may outweigh the importance of social variables
institutional anomie theory
the view that anomie pervades U.S. culture and dominates values
instrumental critical theory
criminal law and criminal justice system are capitalist instruments to control the lower-class
integrated theories
weaves social and individual variables into a complex explanatory chain
labeling theory
society creates deviance by designating certain people as deviant, which causes them to be stigmatized
latent trait theory
criminal behavior is controlled by a master trait that is present at birth or soon after
life course theory
conditions and events can influence the way people behave, and can cause change in that behavior later in life
lifestyle theory
people become crime victims because their life-style increases their exposure
nature theory
intelligence is largely determined by genetics
nurture theory
intelligence is a by-product of enviornment
power-control theroy
gender differences in crime are a function of economic power and parental controls
rational choice theory
crime is a decision-making process in which the offender weighs the risks against the benefits
routine activities theory
predatory crime is related to the interaction of suitable targets, motivated offenders, and capable guardians
self-control theory
the view that the cause of delinquent behavior is an impulsive personality
social conflict theory
crime is a function of class conflict and power relations
social control theory
people commit crime when the forces that bind them to society are weakened or broken
social disorganization theory
breakdown of institutions such as family, school, employment, and neighborhood cause crime
social learning theory
human behavior is modeled through observation and interaction either directly or indirectly
social process theory
people's interactions with organizations, institutions, an process in society lead to crime
social reaction theory
people become criminals when specific members of society label them as such
social structure theory
disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crime
strain theory
sees crime as a function of the conflict between people's goals and their means to attain them
structural critical thoery
criminal law and criminal justice system are a means of preserving the capitalist system
symbolic interaction theory
people communicate through symbols and incorporate it into their personaltity
trait theory
criminality is a product of abnormal biological and or psychological traits
Criminology
the scientific approach to studying criminal behavior
classical criminology
the writing of Beccaria and his followers: people have free will to choose criminal or unlawful behavior
Cesare Lombroso
The father of Crim
criminological enterprise
subareas of criminology exist within the broader areas of criminology
White collar crime
business related offences
Victomology
study of victim culpability, services for victims, and probabilities of victimization
mens rea
intent to commit the criminal act
cross-sectional research
interviewing or questioning a diverse sample of subjects who represent the members of a communtity
longitudinal research
observing a group of people who share like characteristics
20%
the amount of index crime that are reported and cleared each year by arest
the dark figures of crime
crimes that police do not know about
victim-precipitation theory
victim actually initiates the confrontation that leads to their injury or death
capable gaurdians
police, homeowners, and other people in positions to prevent and deter crime
suitable target
expensive and or easy to get item or person targeted by criminals
target hardening
making one's home and business crime proof through locks, bars, alarms, and other devices
Choice theory
criminals choose to commit crime
Diffusion of benefits
when efforts to prevent one crime unintentionally prevents another
extiction
crime reduction programs which may produce a short-term positive effect, but benefits dissipate as criminals adjust
crackdowns
sudden changes in police activity designed to lower crime rates through an increase in the communicated threat
the Hierarchy rule
counting only the highest offenses and ignoring the rest
crowds
loosely organized groups of children who share interests and activities
general deterrence
crime rates are influenced and controlled by the threat of punishment
Intensity
the importance and prestige attributed to individuals or groups from who definitions are learned
Somatotype
William Sheldon; criminals manifest distinct physiques that make them susceptible to particular types of delinquent behavior
techniques of neutraliazation
the ability of delinquent youth to neutralize moral constraints so they may drift into criminal acts
ritualists
those who gain pleasure from practicing traditional ceremonies regardless of whether they have a real purpose
conformity
when individuals embrace conventional social goals and have the means at their disposal to attain them
gentrification
a renewal stage in which obsolete housing is replaced and upgraded
cognitive processing
the mental processes and how people perceive and mentally represent the world around them
reciprocal altruism
the belief that when we come to the aid of others that out actions will be reciprocated
negative reinforcement
when behavior is punsished
equipotentiality
the belief that all humans are born with equal potential to learn and achieve
relative deprovation
the condition that exists when people of wealth and poverty live in close proximity to one another
social strata
the unequal distribution of wealth
moral entrepreneurs
people who create rules
marginal deterence
if petty offenses were subject to the same punishment as more serious crimes, offenders would choose the worse
definitions unfavorable toward criminality
when friends or parents demonstrate their disapproval of crime
reflected appraisal
a youth's self-evaluation based on his or her perceptions of how others evaluate them
mesomorphs
have well developed muscles and an athletic appearance
endomorphs
have heavy builds and are slow moving
ectomorphs
tall, thin, and less social and more intellectual that others
condemnation of condemners
when an offender views the world as a corrupt place with a dog-eat-dog world
situational crime prevention
policies that convince potential criminals to desist from criminal activities, delay their actions, or avoid a target
innovation
when an individual accepts the goals of society, but rejects or is incapable of attaining them through legitimate means
culture of poverty
the view of apathy, cynicism, helplessness, and mistrust of social institutions
socialization
the process of human development and enculturation
drift
the movement from one extreme end of behavior to another, resulting in behavior that is sometimes unconventional
stigma
an enduring label that taints a person's identity and changes him or her in the eyes of others
inheritance school
the study of activities of several generations of families believed to have an especially large number of criminal members
transitional neighborhoods
poverty-ridden neighborhoods which suffer high rates of population turnover and are incapable of inducing residents to remain
anomie
occurs in a society in which rules of behavior have broken down or become inoperative during periods of rapid social change
reflective tole-taking
when one believes that others view them as antisocial or a troublemaker, and then they reflect those beliefs
cliques
small groups of friends who share activities and confidences
crime discouragers
people whose behavior directly influences crime prevention
rebel
substituting an alternative set of goals and means for conventional ones
denial of victim
offenders neutralize wrongdoing by maintaining that the victim of crime "had it coming"
social development model
states that a number of community level risk factors make some people susceptible to developing antisocial behavior
family relation
according to Gluecks, the most important factor that impacts offending
defiance
term represented by activities such as vandalism, curfew violations, and unconventional sex
life-course persisters
small group of offenders who begin their career at an early age, and continue into adult hood
predation
direct forms of physical violence
social capital
positive relations with individuals and institutions that are life sustaining
interpersonal coercion
coercion that is direct, involving the use or threat of force and intimidation
exploitaion
those who have excess control and involve others to commit crime have this power
authority conflict pathway
pathway to crime that begins at an early age, usually with stubborn behavior
critical feminists
those who view gender inequality as a function of female exploitation by fathers and husbands
peacemaking crim
view that the main purpose of crim is to promote a peaceful and just society
overt pathway
pathway of crime where aggressive acts begin with aggression and lead to physical fighting and then to violence
human nature theory
view that both biological and psychological traits influence one's decision to engage in crime or non-crime behavior
egalitarian family
family where husbands and wives share similar positions of power at home and the workplace
control deficit
occurs when a person's desires or impulses are limited by other people's ability to regulate or punish there behavior
proletariat
people who do the actual work in a capitalist society
bourgeoisie
owners of the means of production
submission
passive obedience to the demands of others, such as submitting to physical or sexual abuse without response
impersonal coersion
coercion that involves pressures beyond individual control, such as economic and social preasure
symbolic reparation
some form of an apology
left realism
branch of conflict theory which holds that crime is social problem experienced by the lower class and lower class concerns should be addressed
covert pathway
pathway to crime that begins with a minor, underhanded behavior that leads to property damage
role exit behavior
behavior such as running away from home to respond to bad situations
adolescent-limited
offenders antisocial behavior peeks during adolescence and then disapears
decadence
spur of the moment irrational acts
interactional theory
holds that seriously delinquent juveniles form belief systems that are consistent with their deviant lifestyle