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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a specific act of commission or omission in violation of the law, for which a punishment is prescribed.
Crime Control Model
a model of the criminal justice system that assumes that freedom is so important that every effort must be made to repress crime; it emphasizes efficiency, speed, finality, and the capacity to apprehend, try, convict, and dispose of a high proportion of offenders.
Due Process Model
a model of the criminal justice system that assumes freedom is so important that every effort must be made to ensure that criminal justice decisions are based on reliable information; it emphasizes the adversarial process, the rights of defendants, and formal decision making procedures.
the inequality of treatment of one group by the criminal justice system, compared with the treatment accorded other groups.
differential treatment of individuals or groups based on race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or economic status, instead of on their behavior or qualifications.
a system of government in which power is divided between a central (national) government and regional (state) governments.
a complex whole consisting of interdependent parts whose operations are directed toward goals and are influenced by the environment within which they function.
a mutual transfer of resources; a balance of benefits and deficits that flow from behavior based on decisions about the values and costs of alternatives.
Plea Bargain
a defendant’s plea of guilty to a criminal charge with the reasonable expectation of receiving some consideration from the state for doing so, usually a reduction of the charge. The defendant’s ultimate goal is a penalty lighter than the one formally warranted by the charged offense.
the authority to make decisions without reference to specific rules or facts, using instead one’s own judgment; allows for individualization and informality in the administration of justice.
Filtering process
a screening operation; a process by which criminal justice officials screen out some cases while advancing others to the next level of decision making.
Dual court system
a system consisting of a separate judicial structure for each state in addition to a national structure. Each case is tried in a court of the same jurisdiction as that of the law or laws broken.
The process of determining the guilt or innocence of a defendant.
The physical taking of a person into custody on the ground that probable cause exists to believe that he or she has committed a criminal offense. Police may use only reasonable physical force in making an arrest. The purpose of the arrest is to hold the accused for a court proceeding.
A court order authorizing police officials to take certain actions; for example, to arrest suspects or to search premises.
a document charging an individual with a specific crime. It is prepared by a prosecuting attorney and presented to a court or hearing.
A document returned by a grand jury as a “true bill” charging an individual with a specific crime on the basis of a determination of probable cause as presented by a prosecuting attorney.
serious crimes usually carrying a penalty of death or incarceration for more than one year.
Offenses less serious then felonies and usually punishable by incarceration of no more than a year, probation, or intermediate sanction.