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27 Cards in this Set

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What sort of problems happened durng 1850-1880 to cause an increase in crime?
crime epidemic due to social upheaval caused by large-scale immigration (ex: Ellis Island in NY, movies such as Gangs of New York)
Individual rights are:
Individual rights – the rights guaranteed to all members of American society by the US Constitution, especially those found in the Bill of Rights.
USA Patriot Act of 2001 is:
A federal law enacted in response to terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 9/11. The law substantially broadened the investigative authority of law enforcement agencies throughout American and is applicable to many crimes other than terrorism.
Crime is definated as:
conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction, for which there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse.
Criminology is defined as:
The scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders.
Social justice is defined as:
an ideal that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong.
Civil justice is defined as:
The civil law, the law of civil procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do with private rights and remedies sought by civil action. Civil justice cannot be separated from social justice because the kind of justice enacted in our nation’s civil courts is a reflection of basic American understandings of right and wrong.
Criminal justice is defined as:
in the strictest sense, the criminal (penal) law, the law of criminal procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do with the enforcement of this body of law. Criminal justice cannot be separated from social justice because the kind of justice enacted in our nation’s criminal courts is a reflection of basic American understandings of right and wrong.
Criminal Justice System is defined as:
the aggregate of all operating and administrative or technical support agencies that perform criminal justice functions. The basic divisions of the operational aspects of criminal justice are law enforcement, courts, and corrections.
Consensus Model is defined as:
a criminal justice prospective that assumes that the system’s components work together harmoniously to achieve the social product we call justice.
Conflict Model is defined as:
a criminal justice perspective that assumes that the system’s components function primarily to serve their own interests. According to this theoretical framework, justice is more a product of conflicts among agencies within the system than it is the result of cooperation among component agencies.
Warrant is:
a writ issued by a judicial officer directing a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and affording the officer protection from damages if he or she performs it.
Booking is:
A law enforcement or correctional administrative process officially recording an entry into detention after arrest and identifying the person, the place, the time, the reason for the arrest, and the arresting authority.
Bail is:
the money or property pledge to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of a person from legal custody.
Preliminary Hearing is:
a proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided: whether a crime has been committed, whether the crime occurred within the territorial jurisdiction of the court, and whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime.
Probable Cause is:
a set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent and prudent person to believe that a particular other person has committed a specific crime.
Information is:
a formal, written accusation submitted to a court by a prosecutor, alleging that a specified person has committed a specific offense.
Grand jury is:
a group of jurors who have been selected according to law and have been sworn to hear the evidence and to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the accused person to trial, to investigate criminal activity generally, or to investigate the conduct of a public agency or official.
Indictment is:
a formal, written accusation submitted to the court by a grand jury, alleging that a specified person has committed a specified offense, usually a felony.
Arraignment is:
first appearance of the defendant before the court that has the authority to conduct a trial. Defendant is informed the charge and his or her rights and to enter a plea such as not guilty, guilty or no contest (nolo contendere).
Adjudication is:
to hear and settle (a case) by judicial procedure

6th amendment – the right to a trial by jury
Consecutive sentence is:
one of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and served in sequence with the other sentence. Also, a new sentence for a new conviction, imposed upon a person already under sentence for a previous offense, which is added to the previous sentence.
Concurrent sentence is:
one of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and served at the same time. Also, a new sentence for a new conviction, imposed upon a person already under sentence for a previous offense, served at the same time as the previous sentence.
Due Process is:
right guaranteed by the 5, 6, & 14 Amendments of the US Constitution and generally understood, in legal contexts, to mean the due course of legal proceedings according to the rules and forms established for the protection of individual rights. EX: The right to be assumed innocent until proven guilty, right to a trial by jury, right to an attorney, right to speedy trial, right against cruel or unusual punishment, etc.
Crime Control Model is:
a criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders.
Due Process Model is:
a criminal justice perspective that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of justice system processing.
Social Control is:
the use of sanctions and rewards within a group to influence and shape the behavior of individual members of that group. Social control is a primary concern of social groups and communities, and it is their interest in the exercise of social control that leads to the creation of both criminal and civil statutes.