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60 Cards in this Set

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eft crime
electronic fund transfers which include all payment systems that permit transactions of exchanges in which value is represented by electronic messages, rather than by paper. atms, wire transfers from bank to bank
relative deprivation and crime
peoples relative standard of living. crime may be a way that poor or unemployed people percieve their situation. crime highest in cities where difference between income of the poor and of the rich is greatest.
relative deprivation cont...
expexctations are the goods and conditions of life to which people think thay are rightfully entitled and capabilityes are the goods and conditions of life they think they can achieve and maintain under the current social sysstem.
strain theory
frustration and sense of injustice that result from experiencing socially structured incapacities as low capabilities. material well-being in comparison to other goals might be the same in most societies, but the a solute strength of the drive to attain material success is probably greater in the US. "fetishism of money"
strain theory... agnew
3 measures of strain
the actual or anticipated failure to achieve positively valued goals
the actual or anticipated removal of positively valued stimuli, and
the actual or anticipatred presentation of negative stimuli
magniture, recency, duration, and clustering of strainful events.
most likely to generate delinquent behavior in juveniles who are high in negative emotion. poor relation with adults, dissatisfied with friend and school, strain as poor relations, problem ridden neighborhood. child abuse, not successful
variations in crime
crossnational, regional, temporal
crossnational varations in crime
crime rates seem to be due to differences among countries in social structure, culture, and economy
relitional in crime rates
social structure, the culture and economy- differences within
variations in crime rates
sex, age, race and social class related to social structure, culture and economy
subterranean value
valalisim tolerated on hallowee, spring break, frats..
techniques of neutralization
blows against dominant norma and help to render inoperative the socail controls that woul ottherwise chect law-violating behavior. ena ling but not reauireing people to break the law.
denial of responsibility
a refusal to be held personally accoutnable for ones actions. claim that a criminal or deliquent act was an accident or assert that it was caused by factors beyond their control..broken home,..drunk.. adict
denial of injury
no one is hurt by their crimes, even if they technically violate the law.
denial of victim
crime is justified as rightful retaliation against the victim. offenders decvine victime rather than themselves, as wrongdoers. prostitutes, bookies. not children or elderly
condemnation of the condemners
it is the motives and behavior of the people who are condemning the offender, rather thatn the motives and behavior of the offender that should be condemned. murders and bank robbers getting harsh punnishment, but not for leaders that send men to death in war
appeal to higher authority
an attempt to jsutify violations of the law by the demands of a group such as a juvenile gant or a corporation to standards that might be incompatible with the law.
other techniques of neutralization
defense of necessity
defense of the ledger
denial of the justice or necessity of the law
claim that "everybody is doing it"
claim of entitlement
social control theory
hirschi's theory of deliquency. this theory proplses that people who engate in deliquency are free of intimate attachments, aspirations, and moral beliefs that bind them to a conventional ane law-abiding way of life. deliquents are not forced into deliquency so mush as they are free to commit deliquent acxts because they lack ties to the conventional social order.
the family-social control
deliquents are much less closly attached to their parents or parents are "psychologically present" when the child faces a temptation to violate the law
school- social control
most academically successful student less likely to be deliquent
peer group, lack or attachment to conventional lines of action
part of social control. also socila control theory helps explain variations in crime rates by sex, age, race and social class
authorative approach
most effective parenting style. high degree of control, as well as agressive behavior.
critique of social control theory
does not identify the social-sturcture sources of motivations to break the law.
media helps learn how to commit crime by...
showin gacts of violance on tv, sports, media, porn, correctinla instutites,
differential association theory
explain why crime rates are distributed as they are among various groups as awll as why any given individyual does or doesn't become a criminal
differential asso. criminal behavior that is leanrned
leanred from others, motives and justifications of the crime- but the criminals specific actions can be the result of a combination of skills, ideas and oppertunities
diff. assoc. criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons
this communication can be verbal or nonverbal.
diff. assoc. principal part of te learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups
crime is learned face to face interactions in small groups rejects the possibility that such behavior is learned by the media
diff. assoc. when criminal behavior is learned, the leanring includeds
techniques of committing the crime, which are sometimes very complicated, sometimes very simple
the specific direction of motives, drivers, reationaliztions, and attitudes
little or no skill is needed to commit some crimes.
diff. assoc. direction of motives and drivers is learned from definitions fo the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable
peopel orient their actions toward the law. the law is not irreveland to any individual who is deciding how to behave
diff. assoc. person becomes deliquent becasue of an excess of definitions favorable to violation pof the law over definitions unfaborable to violation of the law
"principle of differential association" contact with criminal or noncriminal definitions but does not require contact with criminal or non crominal individuals. individual holds both definitions favorable and unfavorable to violations of the law, and that is only when definitions favorable to the violation of the law eexceed definitions unfabvorable that a person wil turn to crime.
diff. ass. may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity
the nature of assoc. with criminal and noncriminal patterns, rather that the mere fact of those associations, that is importiant. associations that are more freuquent play a larger role in the balance tetween favorable to violation the law.
diff. assoc. person becomes deliquent becasue of an excess of definitions favorable to violation pof the law over definitions unfaborable to violation of the law
"principle of differential association" contact with criminal or noncriminal definitions but does not require contact with criminal or non crominal individuals. individual holds both definitions favorable and unfavorable to violations of the law, and that is only when definitions favorable to the violation of the law eexceed definitions unfabvorable that a person wil turn to crime.
diff. assoc. the process of learning criminal behav. is associated with criminal and anti criminal patterns involves all of the mechinims that involved in any other learning
crime is a form of behavior that is learned in the wame way as noncriminal behavior
diff. ass. may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity
the nature of assoc. with criminal and noncriminal patterns, rather that the mere fact of those associations, that is importiant. associations that are more freuquent play a larger role in the balance tetween favorable to violation the law.
diff. assoc. crim behav is an iexpression of general needs and vaules
it is not explained by those general needs and vauleds since non criminal behav. in an epresssion of the same needs and vaules. crim behav cannot be explained by a general desire to accumulate property or enhance status because those motives can laso lead to non crim behav.
diff. assoc. the process of learning criminal behav. is associated with criminal and anti criminal patterns involves all of the mechinims that involved in any other learning
crime is a form of behavior that is learned in the wame way as noncriminal behavior
social learning theory
addresses soem of the diff. assoc. theory by integratin git with behavioral learning theory. retains diff. assoc. theoys emphasis on learning from the people with whom an individual interacts with, but specifies the process of learning from other people and by ecamining the way that individuals learn from other sources.
diff. assoc. crim behav is an iexpression of general needs and vaules
it is not explained by those general needs and vauleds since non criminal behav. in an epresssion of the same needs and vaules. crim behav cannot be explained by a general desire to accumulate property or enhance status because those motives can laso lead to non crim behav.
tutelage
or instruction, provides new theives with knowledge of how to spot opportunities for theft and hot to plan to carry them out.
social learning theory
addresses soem of the diff. assoc. theory by integratin git with behavioral learning theory. retains diff. assoc. theoys emphasis on learning from the people with whom an individual interacts with, but specifies the process of learning from other people and by ecamining the way that individuals learn from other sources.
labeling perspective
individuals are affected by being treated as deviants, mental illness, studdering, drug use. assumes that people first violate a norm by chance or for unexplained reasons. this initial act of deviance is called PRIMARY DEVIATION- sometimes elicits reactions from others.
tutelage
or instruction, provides new theives with knowledge of how to spot opportunities for theft and hot to plan to carry them out.
master status- labeling pers.
other aspects of their behavior are submerged in their social identity as deviants
labeling perspective
individuals are affected by being treated as deviants, mental illness, studdering, drug use. assumes that people first violate a norm by chance or for unexplained reasons. this initial act of deviance is called PRIMARY DEVIATION- sometimes elicits reactions from others.
secondary deviation- label. theory
deviant behavior that is a product of htis labeling prossess
master status- labeling pers.
other aspects of their behavior are submerged in their social identity as deviants
rational choice perspective
offenders strategic thinking, or the ways that they process info and evaluate oppertunities and alternatives. focus on the process by which individual s initally decide to violate the law. do not formally calculate the risks associated with theaft
unlikely to be arrested and think that if they are imprisoned it will be for a short time
secondary deviation- label. theory
deviant behavior that is a product of htis labeling prossess
learning theories and variations in crime rates
do not seem to explain temporal variations in crime rates very well. sex, age, race, social class.
rational choice perspective
offenders strategic thinking, or the ways that they process info and evaluate oppertunities and alternatives. focus on the process by which individual s initally decide to violate the law. do not formally calculate the risks associated with theaft
unlikely to be arrested and think that if they are imprisoned it will be for a short time
labeling theory
one reason official crime rates are higher among certain groups is that those groups lack the power to define what kind of behavior will be treated as crimial
learning theories and variations in crime rates
do not seem to explain temporal variations in crime rates very well. sex, age, race, social class.
guardianship.. changes in pattenrs of behav seem to reduce guardian and increase crime are
large increase in the proportion of women holding jobs outside home, increase in proportion of households that have only 1 person, more frequent and longer vacations, more recreational activieies outside home
labeling theory
one reason official crime rates are higher among certain groups is that those groups lack the power to define what kind of behavior will be treated as crimial
routine activities theory
criminal motivations- routine activities explains that the production of opportunities for crime that factors that motivare. motivated offenders and criminal opportunities come together.
guardianship.. changes in pattenrs of behav seem to reduce guardian and increase crime are
large increase in the proportion of women holding jobs outside home, increase in proportion of households that have only 1 person, more frequent and longer vacations, more recreational activieies outside home
property crime
target vulnerability and the likelihood of victim resistance are considered. offenders usually choose victim on basis of how much money or property they'll get.
consider hargets that are vulnerabil of the victim.
routine activities theory
criminal motivations- routine activities explains that the production of opportunities for crime that factors that motivare. motivated offenders and criminal opportunities come together.
property crime
target vulnerability and the likelihood of victim resistance are considered. offenders usually choose victim on basis of how much money or property they'll get.
consider hargets that are vulnerabil of the victim.