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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 0 2
Linear/ Linear/ 180/ sp/ Ex: CO2
2 0 2
Linear/ Linear/ 180/ sp/ Ex: BeCl2
1 1 2
Linear/ Paired/ N/A / sp/ Ex: CO, N2
3 0 3
Trigonal Planar/ Trigonal Planar/ 120/ sp2/ Ex: AlCl3, SO3
2 1 3
Trigonal Planar/ Bent/ <120/sp2/ Ex: SO2, O3
1 2 3
Trigonal Planar/ Paired/ N/A / sp2/ Ex: O2
4 0 4
Tetrahedral/ Tetrahedral/ 109.5/ sp3/ Ex: CH4
3 1 4
Tetrahedral/ Pyramidal/ <109.5/ sp3/ Ex: NH3
2 2 4
Tetrahedral/ Bent/ <109.5/ sp3/ Ex: H2O
1 3 4
Tetrahedral/ Paired/ N/A / sp3/ Ex: HCl
5 0 5
Trigonal Bipyramidal/ Trigonal Bipyramidal/ 90 or 120/ sp3d/ Ex: PCl5
6 0 6
Octahedral/ Octahedral/ 90/ sp3d2/ Ex: SF6
Lewis Structures
Representation of bonding (valence)electrons. Noble Gas configuration = GOAL!!! (Octet Rule)
Rules for Lewis Structures
Hydrogen Follows Octet Rule. He is stable. Octet Rule- representative elements (end in s/p sublevels). Psuedo Noble Gas Configuration (end in d/f sublevels).
Step 1 for Drawing Lewis Structure
1. Add all valence electrons of all atoms.
Step 2 for Drawing Lewis Structure
2. Use one pair of electrons to form stable bonds between atoms.
Step 3 for Drawing Lewis Structure
3. Arrange the electrons in pairs around atoms to follow the Octet Rule(NBP of electrons).
Step 4 for Drawing Lewis Structure
4. Count electrons to follow the Octet Rule.
Step 5 for Drawing Lewis Structure (Not always used)
5. Use Two pairs of electrons to form bonds between atoms.
Step 6 for Drawing Lewis Structure (Not always used)
6. Use three pairs of electrons to form bonds between atoms.
Molecular Structures' Properties
1. Geometric Structure
Molecular Structures' Properties
2. Three-Dimensional Arrangement of Atoms
Molecular Structures' Properties
3. Dependent on the Central Atom(s)
Molecular Structures' Properties
4. Basic Structures: Linear, Trigonal Planar, Tetrahedral, Trigonal Bipyramidal, Octahedral. All Symmetrical (automatically non-polar b/c symmetrical).
Molecular Structures' Properties
5. Other Structures: Bent, Pyramidal, Paired* (Asymmetrical. B/c asymmetrical, they have polar bonds and therefore are polar molecules).
VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory
Minimizes the repulsion of electron pairs and results in an *approximate* molecular structure.
Step 1 to VSEPR Theory
1. Draw Lewis Structure
Step 2 to VSEPR Theory
2. Count Electron pairs and arrange them to minimalize repulsion
Step 3 to VSEPR Theory
3. Determine the position of atoms from how they are paired
Step 4 to VSEPR Theory
4. Determine the name of the molecular structure from how the atoms are arranged
Rule 1 of the VSEPR Theory
1. Two pairs of electrons on central atom are always 180 degrees apart (Linear)
Rule 2 of the VSEPR Theory
2. Three pairs of electrons are always 120 degrees apart (Trigonal Planar)
Rule 3 of the VSEPR Theory
3. Four Pairs of electrons are always 109.5 degrees apart (Tetrahedral)
Rule 4 of the VSEPR Theory
4. When all pairs of electrons on the central atom are shared with another atom, the molecular structure is the same as the arrangement of electrons. (Zero NBP)
Rule 5 of the VSEPR Theory
5. When one or more electron pairs on a central atom are unshared (NBP), then the name for the molecular structure is different from the central atom.
methane
CH4
carbon tetrachloride
CCl4
water
H2O
ammonia
NH3
hydrogen sulfide
H2S
phosphane
PH3
hydrogen peroxide
H2O2
chlorine
Cl2
hydrogen chloride
HCl
oxygen
O2
nitrogen
N2
carbon dioxide
CO2
carbon monoxide
CO
hydrogen
H2
fluorine
F2
bromine
B2
iodine
I2
ethane
C2H6
ethene
C2H4
ethyne
C2H2
ozone
O3
phosphorus pentachloride
PCl5
sulfur hexafluoride
SF6
sulfur dioxide
SO2
sulfur trioxide
SO3