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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
advertising research  
The systematic gathering and analysis of information specifically to facilitate the development or evaluation of advertising strategies, ads and commercials, and media campaigns.
advertising strategy research  
Used to help define the product concept or to assist in the selection of target markets, advertising messages, or media vehicles.
attitude test  
A type of posttest that usually seeks to measure the effectiveness of an advertising campaign in creating a favorable image for a company, its brand, or its products.
central location test  
A type of pretest in which videotapes of test commercials are shown to respondents on a one-to-one basis, usually in shopping center locations.
clutter tests  
Method of pretesting in which commercials are grouped with noncompetitive control commercials and shown to prospective customers to measure their effectiveness in gaining attention, increasing brand awareness and comprehension, and causing attitude shifts.
direct questioning  
A method of pretesting designed to elicit a full range of responses to the advertising. It is especially effective for testing alternative advertisements in the early stages of development.
experimental method  
A method of scientific investigation in which a researcher alters the stimulus received by a test group or groups and compares the results with those of a control group that did not receive the altered stimulus.
focus group  
A qualitative method of research in which four or more people, typical of the target market, are invited to a group session to discuss the product, the service, or the marketing situation for an hour or more.
formal research  
Collecting primary data directly from the marketplace using qualitative or quantitative methods.
halo effect  
In ad pretesting, the fact that consumers are likely to rate the one or two ads that make the best first impression as the highest in all categories.
in-depth interview  
An intensive interview technique that uses carefully planned but loosely structured questions to probe respondents' deeper feelings.
informal research  
The second step in the research process, designed to explore a problem by reviewing secondary data and interviewing a few key people with the most information to share. Also called exploratory research.
inquiry test  
A form of test in which consumer responses to an ad for information or free samples are tabulated.
intensive techniques  
Qualitative research aimed at probing the deepest feelings, attitudes, and beliefs of respondents through direct questioning. Typical methods include in-depth interviews and focus groups.
marketing information system (MIS)  
A set of procedures for generating an orderly flow of pertinent information for use in making market decisions.
marketing research  
The systematic gathering, recording, and analysis of information to help managers make marketing decisions.
A group of potential customers who share a common interest, need, or desire; who can use the offered good or service to some advantage; and who can afford or are willing to pay the purchase price. Also, an element of the media mix referring to the various targets of a media plan.
media classes  
Broad media categories of electronic, print, outdoor, and direct mail.
media research  
The systematic gathering and analysis of information on the reach and effectiveness of media vehicles.
media subclasses  
Smaller divisions of media classes, such as radio, TV, magazines, newspapers, and so on.
media units  
Specific units of advertising in each type of medium, such as half-page magazine ads, 30-second spots, and so on.
media vehicles  
Particular media programs or publications.
Synonymous with product concept when used in reference to the 5Ms of advertising testing.
In oral communication, the idea formulated and encoded by the source and sent to the receiver.
Emotions, desires, physiological needs, or similar impulses that may incite consumers to action.
nonprobability samples  
Research samples that do not provide every unit in the population with an equal chance of being included. As a result, there is no guarantee that the sample will be representative.
observation method  
A method of research used when researchers actually monitor people's actions.
Testing the effectiveness of an advertisement after it has been run.
Testing the effectiveness of an advertisement for gaps or flaws in message content before recommending it to clients, often conducted through focus groups.
projective techniques  
In marketing research, asking indirect questions or otherwise involving consumers in a situation where they can express feelings about the problem or product. The purpose is to get an understanding of people's underlying or subconscious feelings, attitudes, opinions, needs, and motives.
qualitative research  
Research that tries to determine market variables according to unquantifiable criteria such as attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyle.
quantitative research  
Research that tries to determine market variables according to reliable, hard statistics about specific market conditions or situations.
random probability samples  
A sampling method in which every unit in the population universe is given an equal chance of being selected for the research.
recall tests  
Posttesting methods used to determine the extent to which an advertisement and its message have been noticed, read, or watched.
An important characteristic of research test results. For a test to be reliable, it must be repeatable, producing the same result each time it is administered.
sales test  
A useful measure of advertising effectiveness when advertising is the dominant element, or the only variable, in the company's marketing plan. Sales tests are more suited for gauging the effectiveness of campaigns than of individual ads or components of ads.
A portion of the population selected by market researchers to represent the appropriate targeted population. Also, a free trial of a product.
sample unit  
The actual individuals chosen to be surveyed or studied.
secondary data  
Information that has previously been collected or published.
A basic method of quantitative research. To get people's opinions, surveys may be conducted in person, by mail, on the telephone, or via the Internet.
test market  
An isolated geographic area used to introduce and test the effectiveness of a product, ad campaign, or promotional campaign, prior to a national rollout.
Universal Product Code (UPC)  
An identifying series of vertical bars with a 12-digit number that adorns every consumer packaged good.
An entire target population.
An important characteristic of a research test. For a test to be valid, it must reflect the true status of the market.