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26 Cards in this Set

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What is an attitude?
is a lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, or issues. Anything toward which a person has an attitude, whether it is tangible, such as a brand of vodca, or intangible, such as drunk driving, is called an attitude object
What makes an attitude general and lasting?
general- because it applies to more than a momentary event, like hearing a loud noise.
lasting- because it tends to endure over time
Describe the functional theory of attitudes.
was developed by Daniel Katz to explain how attitudes faciliate social behaviour. According to this approach, attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person; that is, they are determined by a person's motives. Ex: two people can each have the same attitude toward some object for very different reasons
Describe the utilitarian function of attitudes.
it is related to the basic principles of reward and punishment. We develop some of our attitudes toward products simply on the basis of whether these products provide pleasure or pain
Describe the value-expressive function of attitudes.
attitudes that perform a value-expressive function express the consumer's central values or self-concept. What does the product he or she buys, say about them? Ex: what sort of man rides a Harley?
Describe the ego-defensive function of attitudes.
attitudes that are formed to protect the person, either from external threats or internal feelings, perform an ego-defensive function. Ex: products that make a man have a "macho" image may be appealing to his insecurity about his masculinity
Describe the knowledge function of attitudes.
some attitudes are formed as the result of a need for order, structure, or meaning. This need is often present when a person is in an ambiguous situation or is confronted with a new product ("bayer wants you to know about pain relievers")
What are the three components an attitude has?
affect, behaviour and cognition
Describe the three components that an attitude has.
affect- the way a consumer FEELS about an attitude object
behaviour- involves the person's intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object
cognition- refers to the BELIEFS a consumer has about an attitude object
ABC model of attitudes
What are the three hierarchies of effects?
high involvement:
cognition>affect>behaviour=attitude based on cognitive information processing
Low involvement:
Cognition>behaviour>affect=attitude based on behavioural learning processes
Zajonc's model:
Affect>Behaviour>cognition= Attitude based on hedonic consumption
What does Aad stand for?
attitude towards the advertisement. It is the consumers reactions to a product that are influenced by their evaluations of its advertising.
What are the main ways in which attitudes can form?
classical conditioning- in an attitude object where mcdonalds is repeatedly paired with the jingle "I'm lovin' it". Instrumental conditioning- where consumption of the attitude object is reinforced Ex: pepsi quenches one's thirst
What are the three different levels of commitment to an attitude?
1. Compliance- lowest level of involvement, an attitude is formed because it helps gain rewards or avoid punishments from others. This attitude is likely to change when the person's behaviour is no longer monitored by others or when other options become available.
2. Identification- Occurs when attitudes are formed so that the consumer will then feel similar to another person or group. Some ads depict the social consequences of choosing some products over others
3. Internalization- High level of involvement, seated attitudes are internalized and become part of the person's value system. These attitudes are very difficult to change because they are so important to the individual.
Describe the principle of cognitive consistency.
This says that consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings and behaviours and they are motivated to maintain this. This means that a consumer, if necessary, will change their thoughts, feelings or behaviours to make them consistent with other experiences.
Describe the theory of cognitive dissonance related to marketing?
This is a conflict between what you think vs. what you do. How do you resolve the dissonance? you can either change the attitude or change behaviour. Ex: two cognitive elements about smoking "I know smoking causes cancer, however I smoke cigarettes" the consumer will resolve the dissonance by either satisfying the urge to smoke or by stopping the behaviour.
Describe the self-perception theory.
Is an alternative explanation of dissonance effects. It assumes that people use observations of their own behaviour to determine what their attitudes are, just as we assume that we know the attitudes of others by watching what they do.
What level of the hierarchies of effects is similar to the self-perception theory?
Low-involvement hierarchy. Buying a product out of habit may result in a positive attitude toward it after the fact.
Describe the foot-in-the-door technique.
This is a sales strategy where a consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he or she has first agreed to comply with smaller requests.
Describe the low-ball technique.
Sales strategy in which a person is asked for a small favour and is informed after agreeing to it that it will be very costly.
Describe the door-in-the-face technique.
This is where a person is first asked to do something extreme (where it is usually refused) and then asked to do something smaller. People tend to go along with the smaller request possibly because they feel guilty about denying the larger one
Describe the social judgement theory.
This assumes that people assimilate new information about attitude object in the light of what they already know or feel. The initial attitude acts as a "Frame of reference" where new information is categorized in terms of the existing standard. Ex: when someone thinks a box is heavy depends on how many boxes they have lifted. This is considered a subject standard (thinking box is heavy due to previous experiences)
Describe the latitudes of acceptance and rejection aspect to the social judgment theory.
This means that people differ in terms of the information they will find acceptable or unacceptable. Ex: a consumer has a favorable attitude towards designated drivers. He is likely to be more encouraged to communications urging him to play this role before heading out with friends at night. If he were opposed to this practice, these messages would most likely not be considered.
Describe the balance theory in the marketing perspective
This theory states that people desire relations among elements in a triad to be harmonious or balanced. It they are not, a state of tension will result until somehow perceptions are changes and balance is restored. This balance act is used commonly for celebrity endorsements where it is hoped that the star's popularity will transfer to the product.
Describe the multi-attribute attitude models.
This type of model assumes that a consumer's attitude (evaluation) of an attitude object (Ao) will depend on the beliefs he or she has about several or many attributes of the object. *Grocery store model*
Describe the three components of attitude according to the fishbein model that relates to the multi-attribute model.
This model measures three components of attitude:
1) Salient beliefs- people have about an attitude object (those beliefs about an object that are considered during evaluation)
2) Object-attribute linkages- the probability that a particular object has an important feature
3)Evaluation of each of the important features
Describe the theory of trying. Name 7 common issues that can happen when someone tries to accomplish something.
This perspective recognizes that additional factors might intervene between intent and performance- both personal and environmental barriers might prevent the individual from attaining the goal.
1. Past frequency
2. Recency
3. Beliefs
4. Evaluations of consequences
5. The process
6. Expectations of success and failure
7. Subjective norms toward trying