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269 Cards in this Set

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What is motivation?
"an inner state of arousal" with aroused energy directed to achieving a goal
What is Goal-Relevent behavior?
The willingness to do more things that make it more likely for someone to achieve their goals.
What is motivated reasoning?
processing information in a way that allows consumers to reach a particular conclusion
What is felt involvement?
the psychological experience of the motivated consumer
What are the types of felt involvement?
1. Enduring
2. Situational
3. Cognitive
4. Affective
What is enduring involvement?
showing interest in an offering or activity over a long period of time
What is stimulational involvement?
involvement that is high only when the consumer is trying to achieve their goal
Ahat is cognitive involvement?
the consumer is interested in thinking about and processing information related to their goal. The goal includes learning.
What is affective involvement?
the consumer is willing to expend emotional energy or has heightened feeling about an offering.
When do consumers see things as personally relevant and important?
When it is...
1. Consistent with their values, goals and needs
2. risky
3. moderately inconsistent with prior attitudes
What does personally relevant mean?
the extent to which it has a direct bearing on and significant consequences or implications for your life
What are values?
beliefs that guide what people regard as good or important
What is a goal?
a particular end state or outcome that a person would like to achieve
What is a need?
an internal state of tension caused by a disequilibrium from an ideal or desired state
What is Maslow's Hierarchy of needs?
needs are categorized into a basic hierarchy. people fulfill the lower-order needs before higher-order needs
What are social needs?
needs that require the presence or actions of other people
What are nonsocial needs?
needs which achievement is not based on other people
What are functional needs?
they motivate the search for products that solve consumption-related problems
What are symbolic needs?
they affect how we perceive ourselves and how we are perceived by others
What are hedonic needs?
needs for sensory stimulation, cognitive stimulation & novelty
What are the characteristics of needs?
1. Dynamic (always changing)
2. Exist in a hierarchy (various levels of importance)
3. Internally or Externally aroused
4. Can conflict (filling one can cause a problem for filling another)
What is an approach avoidance conflict?
you want to engage in a behavior and avoid it at the same time
What is an approach-approach conflict?
You must choose between two or more desirable behaviors.
What is an avoidance-avoidance conflict?
You must choose between two or more undesirable behaviors.
What is perceived risk?
the extent to which the consumer is uncertain about the personal consequences of buying, using or disposing of an offering
What is performance Risk?
uncertainty about whether the product or service will perform as expected
What is financial risk?
high if the offering is expensive
What is physical risk?
the potential harm a product or service might pose to one's safety
What is social risk?
the potential harm to one's social standing that may arise from buying, using or disposing of an offering
What is psychological risk?
the consumers' concern about the extent to which a product or service fits with the way they perceive themselves
What is time risk?
uncertainties over the length of time that must be invested in buying, using, or disposing of the product
What is ability?
the extent to which consumers have the necessary sources to make the outcome happen
What affects ability?
knowledge, experience, cognitive style, complexity of information, intelligence, education, age & money
How can people gain knowledge & experience about products?
product or service experiences such as ad exposures, interactions with salespeople, information from friends or the media, previous decision making or product usage, or memory
What is cognitive style?
preferences for ways information should be represented
What is cognitive complexity?
complicated processing of information from marketing communications
What is opportunity?
a factor that affects whether motivation results in action
What affects opportunity?
time, distraction, amount of information, repetition of information, control of information
What is exposure?
the process by which the consumer comes into physical contact with a stiumulus
What are marketing stimuli?
messages and information about products or brands, communicated by either the marketer or by nonmarketing sources
What factors affect exposure?
position of an ad within a medium, product distribution, shelf placement
What is selective exposure?
consumers choose to actively seek or avoid stimuli
What is zipping?
fast-forwarding through commercials
What is zapping?
skipping commercials all-together
What is attention?
the process by which we devote mental activity to a stimulus
What are the characteristics of attention?
1. selective
2. capable of being divided
3. limited
What is preattentive processing?
the extent that we can process information from our peripheral vision even if we are not aware that we are doing so
What is hemispheric lateralization?
how the two halves of the brain process information

1. whether the stimulus is a picture or word
2. whether it is in our left or right visual field
How can marketers attract attention?
Make the stimulus:
1. personally relevant
2. pleasant
3. surprising
4. easy to process
What is concreteness?
the extent to which we can imagine a stimulus (apple vs. glory)
What is perception?
occurs when stimuli are registered by one of our five senses
What is the absolute threshold?
the minimum level of stimulus intensity needed for a stimulus to be perceived
What is the differential threshold?
the intensity difference needed between two stimuli before people can perceive that the stimuli are different
What is Weber's Law?
the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different
What is subliminal perception?
our perception of stimuli that are presented below the threshold level of awareness
What is perceptual organization?
a complex combination of numerous simple stimuli that consumers must organize into a unified whole
What is the principle of figure and ground?
people interpret incoming stimuli in contrast to a background
What is closure?
the fact that individuals have a need to organize perceptions so that they can form a meaningful whole
What is grouping?
the fact that we often group stimuli to form a unified picture or impression, making it easier to process them
What is knowledge content?
the information consumers have already learned about brands, companies, product categories, ads, people, how to shop, how to use products, etc.
What is a knowledge structure?
the way consumers organize knowledge
What is categorization?
the process of labeling or identifying an object that we perceive in our external environment based on its similarity to what we already know
What is comprehension?
the process of using prior knowledge to understand more about what is being categorized
What is a schema?
the set of associations linked to a concept
What are the dimensions of schemas?
1. Types of associations
2. favorability
3. uniqueness
4. salience
What are schemas created for?
brands, people, services & stores, salespeople, ads, animals, countries, ourselves (self-schema)
What is a brand personality?
how someone would describe a brand if it were a person
What is a script?
a special type of schema that represents knowledge of a sequence of events
What are taxonomic categories?
a specifically defined division within an orderly classification of objects with similar objects in the same category
What are the levels of taxonomic categories?
Superordinate / basic / subordinate / category members / features
What is a graded structure?
the fact that category members vary in how well they are perceived to represent a category
What is a prototype?
the category member perceived to be the best example of a category
What affects prototypicality?
shared associations (how many features it shares with other members of the category), frequency of encounters
What are correlated associations?
features that are associated together that cause customers to infer about a new brand
What are goal-derived categories?
categories that contain things consumers view as relevant to the goal
When does categorization occur?
when consumers use their knowledge to label, identify and classify something new
What happens after initial categorization?
consumers may not be able to categorize the offering differently
What is comprehension?
the process of extracting higher-order meaning from an offering
What is objective comprehension?
whether the meaning that consumers extract from a message is consistent with what the message actually stated
What is subjective comprehension?
the different or additional meaning consumers attach to the message
What is miscomprehension?
when consumers inaccurately receive the meaning contained in a message
What is an attitude?
an overall evaluation that expresses how much we like or dislike an object, issue, person or action
What do attitudes result in?
1. guiding our thoughts (cognitive function)
2. influencing our feelings (affective function)
3. affect our behavior (connative function)
What are the characteristics of attitudes?
1. favorability
2. attitude accessibility
3. attitude confidence
4. persistence (endurance)
5. resistance to change
what are cognitive responses?
the thoughts we have when exposed to communication
What are counterarguments?
thoughts that express disagreement with the message
What are support arguments?
thought that express agreement with the message
What are source derogations?
thought that discount or attack the source of the message
What are expectancy-value models?
explain how consumers form and change attitudes based on beliefs or knowledge and their evaluation of these beliefs
What is the theory of reasoned action (TORA)?
behavior is a function of our intent to behave which is determined by our attitude toward performing the behavior and the influence of others' opinions
What is attitude specificity?
the more specific the attitude is to the behavior of interest, the more likely the attitude will be related to the behavior
What are normative influences?
how others can play into how people behave
What are three good things about the TORA model?
1. attitude specificity
2. normative influences
3. predict the intention to act rather than the action
What factors affect the credibility of a source (person)?
1. trustworthiness
2. expertise
3. status
What is credibility?
the likelihood that a consumer will believe the message
What affects the credibility of a message?
1. the quality of the argument
2. whether it is a one-sided or two-sided message
3. whether it is a comparative advantage
What is a one-sided message?
a message that present only positive information
What is a two-sided message?
a message that contains both positive and negative information about an offering
What are comparative messages?
they show how much better an offering is than the competitor's
What is effective involvement?
emotional reactions to a stimulus when an object or decision is high
What is an affective response?
the generation of images or feelings rather than cognitive responses
What are emotional appeals?
messages evoking ego-focused responses (good in group-oriented cultures) or empathetic messages (good in individualistic cultures)
How does attractiveness affect attitudes?
the more attractive the source, the more favorable the attitude towards the source
What does the match-up hypothesis say?
the source should match the offering
What characteristics of the message can influence consumers?
emotional appeals & fear appeals
What are common emotional appeals?
love, desire, joy, hope, excitement, daring, fear, anger, shame, rejection
What are fear appeals?
the attempt to elicit fear or anxiety by stressing the negative consequences of either engaging or not engaging in a particular behavior
What can affect the attitude toward the ad?
1. utilitarian dimension (information)
2. hedonic dimension (feelings or emotions)
3. interesting - attracts attention/curiosity
What factors determine whether a consumer's attitude will affect their behavior?
1. level of involvement/elaboration
2. knowledge or experience
3. analysis of reasons
4. accessibility of attitudes
5. attitude confidence
6. specificity of attitudes
7. attitude-behavior relationship over time
8. situational factors
9. normative factors
10. personality variables
What is the peripheral route to persuasion?
the message is processed from the peripheral
What are peripheral cues?
visuals related to the offering
What are simple inferences?
simple beliefs based on simple associations
What are heuristics?
simple rules of thumb
What is the frequency heuristic?
consumers form a belief based on the number of supporting arguments
What is the truth effect?
consumers are actually likely to have stronger beliefs if they hear the message repeatedly
What are the three major characteristics of communication?
1. the source
2. the message
3. context in which the message is delivered
What is self-referencing?
relating the message to their own expertise or self-image
How can marketers increase self-referencing?
1. directly instructing the consumers to use self-reference
2. Using the word YOU in the ad
3. asking rhetorical questions
4. showing visuals of situations to which the consumer can easily relate
What is the mere exposure effect?
we tend to prefer familiar objects to unfamiliar ones
What is classical conditioning?
Pavlov (dogs eat), influencing attitudes without invoking much processing effort
What does the dual-mediation hypothesis say?
consumers can have a favorable attitude toward an ad either because they find it believable or they feel good about it
What is the difference between classical conditioning and mood?
Mood:
1. does not require a repeated association between two stimuli
2. can affect consumers' evaluations of any object, not just the stimulus
What happens when consumers are in a good mood?
they ignore negative information about the brand as well as information about a competitor
What are three major categories of affective responses?
1. SEVA (communication puts consumer in an upbeat mood)
2. Deactivation feelings (soothing, relaxing, quiet or pleasant responses)
3. social affection (feelings of warmth, tenderness, caring)
What are the benefits of attractiveness?
increased believability and actual purchase
What is consumer memory?
a vast personal storehouse of knowledge about products, services, shopping excursions, and consumption experiences
What is retrieval?
the process of remembering or accessing what we have stored into memory
What is sensory memory?
memory that stores sensory experiences temporarily
What is echoic memory?
memory of things we hear
What is iconic memory?
sensory memory of things we see
What are the characteristics of sensory memory?
Information is stored in its actual sensory form, short-lived (1/4 second to several seconds)
What is short-term memory?
the portion of memory where we encode or interpret incoming information in light of existing knowledge
What is discursive processing?
when we think about an object and represent it with a word
What is imagery processing?
representing the five senses of a property of an object
What are the characteristics of short term memory?
1. limited
2. short-lived
What is long-term memory?
the part of memory where information is permanently stored for later use
What is autobiographical memory?
knowledge we have about ourselves and our past
What is semantic memory?
knowledge about the world that is detached from specific episodes about us
What is chunking?
breaking information into chunks to store in short-term memory
What are chunks?
a group of items that is processed as a unit
What is rehearsal?
we actively and consciously interact with the material we are trying to remember
What is recirculation?
transferring information to long-term memory by encountering it repeatedly
What is elaboration?
processing information at deeper levels to transfer into long-term memory
What are semantic networks?
they represent the organization of long-term memory or prior knowledge
What is trace strength?
the strength of the links or associations
What is accessibility?
the relative ease of retrieving information from memory
What is spreading of activation?
moving through memory and activating memories with other memories
What is decay?
forgetting things because trace strength fades
What is interference?
semantic networks are so closely aligned that we cannot remember which features go with which brand or concept
What are the primacy and recency effects?
The things we encountered first or last in a sequence are remembered most often
What are retrieval errors?
1. not remembering accurate or complete
2. selective memory
3. distorted memory
What is explicit memory?
memory of some prior episode achieved through attempts to remember it
What is recognition?
identifying something we have seen before, such as brand recognition and ad recognition
What is recall?
remembering knowledge about a product as input for decision making
What is free recall?
retrieving something from memory without any help
What is cued recall?
remembering something from memory when given a cue to recall it
What enhances retrieval?
1. the stimulus itself
2. what the stimulus is linked to
3. the way the stimulus is processed
4. the characteristics of consumers
What is salience?
the ability to stand out from the larger context
What are redundant cues?
information that goes together naturally
What is a retrieval cue?
a stimulus that facilitates the activation of memory
What is problem recognition?
the perceived difference between an ideal and an actual state
What is the ideal state?
the way consumers would like a situation to be
What is the actual state?
the real situation as consumers perceive it now
What is an internal search?
retrieving memories about past experiences with products/brands
What do researchers want to know about the internal search?
1. extent of the search
2. nature of the search
3. process by which consumers recall information, feelings and experiences
What are the four major types of information?
1. brands
2. attributed
3. evaluations
4. experiences
What is a consideration set?
a subset of brands consumers tend to recall (2-8)
What is preference dispersion?
the equality of preferences toward brands or products in a set
What are the factors that increase the possibility of consumers recalling a brand?
1. prototypicality
2. brand familiarity
3. goals & usage situation
4. brand preference
5. retrieval cues
What are the major variables that influence the recall of attribute information?
1. accessibility or availability
2. diagnosticity
3. salience
4. vividness
5. goals
What is diagnostic information?
helps us distinguish objects from one another
What are salient attributes?
prominent attributes
What is attribute determinance?
being both salient and diagnostic
What is online processing?
you determine whether you like the brand when you see an ad because you are already searching for the product
What is a confirmation bias?
our tendency to recall information that reinforces or confirms our overall beliefs rather than contradicting them
What is an inhibition?
prevention of recall
What is an external search for information?
researching outside sources such as dealers, trusted friends or relatives, published sources, advertising, the Internet or product package
What is the prepurchase search?
a response to the activation of problem recognition where consumers search for a product they choose to buy
What is ongoing search?
searching for information about a product on a regular basis
What are the five key aspects of the external search process?
1. the source of information
2. the extent of the external search
3. the content of the external search
4. search typologies
5. the process order of the search
What are the five major categories of external sources?
1. retailer search
2. media search
3. interpersonal search
4. independent search
5. experiential search
What are the factors that increase our motivation to conduct an external search?
1. involvement and perceived risk
2. perceived costs and benefits of the search
3. nature of the consideration set
4. relative brand uncertainty
5. attitudes towards the search
6. the level of discrepancy of new information
What variables affect the extent of an external search?
1. consumer knowledge
2. cognitive abilities
3. demographic factors
What are the two major types of search processes?
searching by brand
searching by attribute
What are judgments?
evaluations for estimates regarding the likelihood of events
What is an estimation of likelihood?
our determination of the probability that something will occur
What are judgments of goodness/badness?
our evaluation of the desirability of the offerings' features
What is the anchoring and adjustment process?
anchoring the judgment of likelihood and goodness/badness on some initial value then adjusting or updating the evaluation as new information is considered
What is imagery?
visualization
What are the various types of biases?
1. Confirmation bias
2. Self-positivity bias
3. Negativity bias
4. Mood & bias
5. Prior brand evalutations
What is a confirmation bias?
when consumers acquire and process only confirming evidence
What is a self-positivity bias?
when consumers believe they are less vulnerable to risk than others are
What is a negativity bias?
consumers weight negative information more heavily than positive information when forming judgements
What is a mood bias?
when the mood serves as the initial anchor for judgement
What is a conjunctive probability assessment?
when consumers estimate the likelihood that two events will occur simultaneously
What is an illusory correlation?
when consumers think a relationship exists that does not
What is an inept set?
options that are unacceptable
What is an inert set?
options that are treated with indifference
What are cognitive models?
they describe the processes by which consumers combine information about attributes to reach a decision in a rational, systematic manner
What is a compensatory model?
consumers choose the brand that has the greatest number of positive features relative to negative
What is a noncompensatory model?
negative information leads the consumer to immediately reject the brand or product from the consideration set
What is brand processing?
when consumers evaluate one brand at a time
What is attribute processing?
when consumers evaluate many brands one attribute at a time
What is a multiattribute model?
research focused on brand-based compensatory model
What is the additive difference model?
brands are compared by attribute TWO brands at a time
What are cutoff levels?
the level for an attribute that will cause a brand to be rejected if it is below the cutoff
What is the conjunctive model?
a set of MINIMUM cutoffs for EACH attribute that represent the absolute lowest level of value they are willing to accept
What is the disjunctive model?
the consumer sets up ACCEPTABLE levels for cutoffs (desirable) and bases decision on the most important attributes
What is the lexicographic model?
consumers order attributed in terms of importance and compare the options one attribute at a time
What is the elimination-by-aspects model?
consumers set up an acceptable cutoff and consider all attributes
What is affective decision making?
making a decision based on feelings or emotions
What are noncomparable decisions?
decisions that must be made when attributes cannot be compared
What is the alternative-based strategy?
consumers develop an overall evaluation for each option and base their decision on it
What is the attribute-based strategy?
consumers make comparisons between abstract representations of comparable attributes
What are contextual effects?
consumer characteristics, task characteristics, task definition or framing & the presence of a group
What is the attraction effect?
when inferior brands are added to the consideration set to increase decision accuracy and decrease effort
What is an extremeness aversion?
options perceived as extreme on a particular attribute seem less attractive
What is decision framing?
the way a task is defined or represented
What is the representativeness heuristic?
making comparisons to the category prototype in order to make simple estimations or judgements
What is the availability heuristic?
the ease with which instances of an event can be brought to mind
What is base-rate information?
how often an event actually occurs
What is the law of small numbers?
people expect information obtained from a small sample to be typical of the larger population
What is the high-effort hierarchy?
Beliefs -> Attitudes -> Behavior
What is the low-effort hierarchy?
Beliefs -> Behavior -> Attitudes
What is optimizing?
the goal to find the best possible brand
What is satisfice?
to fine a brand that simply satisfies needs
What are choice tactics?
decision heuristics that result in quick, effortless decision making
What are the types of choice tactics?
1. Affect tactics (I like it)
2. Performance tactics (it works)
3. Normative tactics (mom bought it)
4. habit tactics (buy the same as before)
5. brand loyalty
6. variety-seeking tactics
What is operant conditioning?
viewing behavior as a function of previous actions and of the reinforcements or punishments obtained from these actions
What are the two broad categories of low-involvement decisions?
thought based
feeling based
What are performance-related tactics?
deciding based on what works the best of has a specific attribute or benefit
What are price-related tactics?
buying the cheapest brand on sale or using a coupon
What are normative choice tactics?
using information you receive from people around you
What is the results of normative choice tactics?
1. direct influence
2. vicarious observation
3. indirect influence
What is an affect?
low-level feelings
What are affect-related tactics?
a form of category-based processing where we base our decision on how we feel
What is affect referral?
referring to how I feel about something
What is brand familiarity?
exposure to a brand
What is variety seeking?
wanting to try something different
What is post-decision dissonance?
feeling uncertain that a consumer has made the right choice
How do you reduce post-decision dissonance?
search for additional information from sources such as experts and magazines
What is post-decision regret?
consumers perceive an unfavorable comparison between the performance of the chosen option and the performance of an unchosen option
What is hypothesis testing?
forming a hypothesis based on past experience or another source and then setting out to test it
What are the basic stages of hypothesis testing?
1. hypothesis generation
2. exposure to evidence
3. encoding of evidence
4. integration of evidence and prior beliefs
What is hypothesis generation?
creating a hypothesis from information
What is exposure to evidence?
encountering a product to base
What is encoding the evidence?
assessing the information gathered from exposure
What is integrating the evidence?
making the evidence fit into previous information
What are the four factors that affect learning from experience?
1. motivation
2. prior familiarity
3. ambiguity of the information
4. processing biases
What is ambiguity of information?
when many offerings are similar in quality and consumers can glean little information from the experience
What is satisfaction?
having a positive evaluation of the chosen product
What is dissatisfaction?
having a negative evaluation of an oucome
What is disconfirmation?
discrepancy between prior expectations and the product's actual performance
What are expectations?
desired product/service outcomes
What is performance?
measurement of whether the expected outcomes have been achieved
What is positive disconfirmation?
better than expected performance
What is simple confirmation?
performance is as good as expected
What is negative disconfirmation?
performance is lower than expected
What are post-decision feelings?
feelings that help explain the satisfaction or dissatisfaction
What is attribution theory?
explains how individuals find explanations or causes for effects or behavior
What are the three key factors in attribution theory?
1. stability
2. focus
3. controllability
What is equity theory?
a theory focusing on the nature of exchanges between individuals and their perceptions of these exchanges
What is fairness in the exchange?
perception that the consumer has purchased a desirable system at a fair price
What are the typical responses to dissatisfaction?
1. take no action
2. discontinue purchasing the product or service
3. complain to the company
4. engage in negative word-of-mouth communication
What is customer retention?
the practice of working to satisfy customers with the intention of developing long-term relationships with them
What is disposition?
throwing away of meaningless or used-up items without any though
What are the various ways products can be disposed of?
1. given away
2. traded to someone else as part of a purchase of another item
3. recycled
4. sold
5. used up
6. thrown away
7. abandoned (discarding in a socially unacceptable way)
8. destroyed
What is physical detachment?
an item is physically transferred to another person or location
What is emotional detachment?
forgetting an item