Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A stimulus that gets its reinforcing ability by virtue of being paire with an already effective reinforcer.
Conditioned reinforcer
Give two examples of a conditioned reinforcers
Money- by itself is nothing it has been paired with purchasing virtually anything.

Clicking sound of a feeder or can opener to a hungry animal gives information about the upcomming reinforcer.
Unconditional vs. Conditional reinforcer
unconditional reinforcers are sometimes called primary reinforcers and include food and water.

Condtitioned reinforcers are those things or events that are reinforcing through learning (internet, friends, art, music)
Generalized conditioned reinforcer and example
reinforcer that acquires its reinforcing strengths through its relation to MULTIPLE reinforcers. (Money)
The main advantage of a generalized reinforcer is
it does not depend for its effectiveness on a particular state of deprivation
Besides money give an example of a generalized reinforcer
Attention; because no behavior can be reinforced if it has not been attended too.
extended sequences of behavior organized around a particular outcome
Behavior chains
it is important to stress that in behavior chain each step serves as a reinforcer but THE reinforcer is...
not given until ALL the behaviors in the chain have been fulfilled.
The transitions between links in a behavior chain appear to serve two important functions
conditioned reinforcer: they strengthen behavior which produces them.

discriminative stimulus: they set the occasion for behavior that occurs in their presence.
a schedule in which two or more schedule components (links) are arranged successively with reinforcement provided upon completion of all schedule components in the sequence.
chained schedule
Example of Chained schedule
in a chained FI 30 (red) FR 50 (green), the first response in red after 30 s would produce a green stimulus; 50 responses in the presence of the green stimulus would produce food.

The transition from red to green serves as a conditioned reinforcer (strengthens behavior that produces green) and a discriminative stimulus (sets the occasion for FR responses that produce food.
To understand the effects of the added stimuli (change from red to green) in behavior chains what should be experimentally done.
compare them to a comparable schedule without added stimuli (OR TANDEM SCHEDULE)
a schedule just like a chained schedule except there are no added stimuli
Tandem schedule

thus the two schedules occur one after another in succession without any stimuli (conditioned reinforcer) in between.
behavior is more uniform across schedule components
In tandem schedules
Chained and tandem schedules are types of complex schedules known as
sequential schedules
two or more independent schedules alternate within a session each providing its own reinforcement and schedule components are signaled by distinct stimuli, we call the schedule a
Multiple schedule
Multiple schedules are useful in
assessing the effects of some independent variable within a single session
In a multiple schedule, behavior in one component is sometimes affected by the schedule in another component. This is called
schedule interaction
There are two main types of such schedule interactions
behavioral contrast: behavior in the two components change in opposite directions.

induction: behavior in the two components change in the same direction.
As with chained schedules, it is sometimes useful to know what role the stimuli in multiple schedules are serving. A multiple schedule without the added stimuli is called
a mixed schedule
in mixed schedule behavior is more
realize that in both cases where there is no distinctive stimuli (tandem and mixed)there is also more _____________. why?
Behavior is more uniform across components.

That is, because there are no stimuli correlated with the different schedules.
the most effective way to chain a behavior chain is...
backwards... backward chaining
When in the course of learning a new behavior shouls a cue be introduced to SIGNAL the behavior.
At the end. Once the behavior is learned THEN a multitude of signals can be easily trained to SIGNAL the behavior.
operant chain where the topography or form of response is similar in each component
homogenous chain
an operant chain where the topography or form of response is different for the links in the chain is known as
Heterogenous chain
What are the three determinants of conditioned reinforcement
Frequency of U.C reinforcement

Variability of U.C reinforcement

Establishing operations
The effect of frequency on strength of Unconditioned reinforcement
the effectiveness of a reinforcer increases as presentation to it increases (eventually levels off).
The effect of VARIABILITY on strength of Unconditioned reinforcement
Variability of unconditioned reinforcement, increases its effectiveness as a conditioned reinforcer.
The effect of establishing operations on strength of Unconditioned reinforcement
The effectiveness of a cinditioned reinforcer is enhanced by events that ESTABLISH its reinforcement.

f.e: birds are more likely to correlate pecking on a stimuli, say red light giving food if they are hungry than when they are not hungry.
The longer the delay between a discriminative stimulus and an unconditioned reinforcement...
the less effective it will serve as a conditioned reinforcer.
Observing-response procedure
Procedures of reinforcement and extinction alternate WITHOUT A SIGNAL (Mixed schedule).

Then an observing response is added (like a stimulus) changing it from mixed to multiple schedule.

When observing repsonse was added birds had high rates of pecking in reinforcement phase and not in extinction suggesting that the birds correlated signal (conditional reinforcer) with reinforcement.
what were the two conclusions drawn from the observing-response study?
1.) Birds may have only responded to good news and not bad news (Red vs green)

2.) Birds responses are better correlated with positive or negative reinforcement.
Stimuli correlated with positive and negative reinforcement mantain observing behavior while those merely informing of good news and bad news, do not.
generalized social reinforcement
approval, attention, praise