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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Clauses introduced by an “if” are known as?
Conditionals.
Conditionals also known as?
If structures. If clauses. If sentences.
A conditional comprises?
A hypothesis and the result
A hypothesis and the result are also known as?
A condition and a consequence.
When the hypothesis precedes the consequence, the clauses are separated by?
A comma.
When the consequence precedes the hypothesis, the clauses?
Have no separating comma!
The types of conditional comprise?
Zero, first, second, third and mixed.
A zero conditional happens?
Anytime.
The possibility a zero conditional is?
Certain.
The structure of a zero conditional is?
Hypothesis – consequence.
Zero conditionals express?
Something that is always true as long as the condition is met.
The tense in both clauses of a zero conditional is?
Present simple.
In zero conditionals, the conditional always?
Has the same result.
Between “if” and “when” in a zero conditional?
There’s no difference.
In some cases, “if” in a zero conditional suggests?
That something happens less frequently.
In some cases, “when” in a zero conditional suggests?
That something happens regularly.
A first conditional happens?
In the future.
The possibility of a first conditional is?
Possible.
A first conditional is used to express what kind of situation?
Real or very probable.
Other functions of a first conditional may express?
Warnings, threats or promises!
Generally, the tense of the hypothesis (if-clause) in the first conditional is in?
The simple present.
Other tenses for the If-clause in a first conditional may include?
Present continuous, present perfect, present perfect continuous.
In the main clause of a first conditional, to show something will definitely happen, what is used?
“Will/ Be going to” or modal verbs (can, could, may, might, must and should).
What other word could be used in the if-clause of a first conditional to show a little more uncertainty?
Should.
When “should” is used in the main clause of a first conditional, the speaker is expressing his?
Opinion or giving advice.
In the main clause of a first conditional, a degree of possibility can be expressed depending on the meaning of each?
Modal verb.
In the main clause of a first conditional, an order/suggestion can be given or request made by?
The imperative.
Other functions or concepts a first conditional sentence may express, include?
Warnings, threats or promises.
A second conditional happens?
In the future or in the present.
The possibility of a second conditional is?
Unlikely.
Second conditionals are used to express?
Imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the present or unlikely to happen in the present or future as the condition is unlikely to be met.
Generally, in a second conditional, the tense of the if-clause is?
Simple past (subjective).
Generally, in a second conditional, the tense of the if-clause is?
Simple past (subjective).
Generally, in a second conditional, the verb form of the main-clause is?
Would + base form (conditional).
The structure of a second conditional is?
If clause + would + (base form).
What is the format of an impossible present (second) conditional statement?
“If I were you, I would” + base form.
Other combinations of tenses in a second conditional might include?
Unreal present (past simple or past continuous) or unlikely future (past simple or past continuous).
In unreal present or unlikely future second conditionals, the main clause might include any of the following with the base form verb?
Would, could, might, or should.
In if-clauses of second conditionals, “were” is used for what subjects?
Both singular and plural.
The functions of second conditionals include advice, suggestions or recommendations, or the following situations?
Imaginary, hypothetical, possible but improbable future, impossible or contrary to fact.
When is an impossible present (second) conditional used?
To express advice, make recommendations or suggestions.
The tense of the if-clause in a third conditional happens?
In the past perfect.
The main clause of a third conditional is structured as?
Would + have + past participle (also called “conditional perfect”).
Other verb forms in the third conditional include?
Unreal past (past perfect or past perfect continuous) or regret/criticism (past perfect)
The possibility of a third conditional is?
Impossible.
Third conditionals are used to express?
Imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the past or to express regrets or criticism
By combining the if-clause from one type of conditional with the main clause from another one, you get?
A mixed conditional.
A future second conditional could be combined with?
Either a present second conditional or a past third conditional.
A present second conditional could be combined with?
Either a future first conditional or a past third conditional.
A past third conditional could be combined with?
Either a future second conditional or a present second conditional
Unless, providing , providing that, so long as, as long as, on condition that, what if, suppose, supposing, otherwise, but for , and, in case are all words or expressions that?
Convey a conditional outcome.
What happens sometimes to the subject and verb when “if” is omitted with “were, had (past perfect) and should?
They are inverted. (e.g. “Had I known, I would”, instead of “If I had known, I would…)
Are will, would or should normally used in an if clause?
No.
When will, would or should are used in an if clause, it is done to?
Make a polite request, express insistence or uncertainty (where if means whether).
To talk about something that is possible but very unlikely to happen?
Should may be used (e.g. If anyone should call, please take a message.)
None
In implied conditions, when the if clause is implied but not stated, conditional verbs?
Are still used in the consequence clause. (e.g. “I would have gone, but I had to study” as opposed to, “If I didn’t have to study, I would have gone.”)
The idea usually following the “as if / as though” sentence is?
Not true. (e.g. “He acted as though he had never met me”, means “Actually, he has met me before.”)
Other times, the “as if / as though” introduces?
A “true” situation or prediction. (e.g. It looks as if it’s very delicious.)