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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define lifespan
understand how ad why people change or remain the same from cradle to grave
life span involves which scientific disciplines
psychology, sociology, history, anthropology, and biology
what leads to the development of the individual
genetic influences, physical maturation and cognition
ecological approach
an interaction between individual and environment; Urie Bronfenbrenner
microsystem
immediate environmental settings that influence and shape the individual
exosystem
political, education and cultural practices--surrounds the microsystem
macrosystem
surrounds both micro and exosystem; extending beliefs and values of the society
cohort
group of people born within a few years of each other, grow up and develop with different options, priorities and constraints
SES (socioeconomic status)
a major influence on development
variables include, income education, residence, and occupation
low SES causes
increased pressure and limited opportunities
infant mortality, adult health problems and adolescent violence are more common among_________
the poor or low SES
culture
shaped set of values, attitudes and customs in a particular setting
ethnicity
shared values and geography, ancestry and religion
various _________ groups can share their culture with other groups yet maintain their _______ identidy
culture
ethnic
nature-nurture controversy
impact of genetics and environment on personal development
the range of abilities each person inherits genetically at time of conception is _______
nature
environmental influences that occur after conception
nurture
twin studies are common methods of investigating ______________
nature v. nurture
concordance rates
how commonly a trait is shared between identical twins v. fraternal twins, v ordinary siblings
scientific method
general model which focuses on objectively gathered information using four steps
list the 4 steps of the scientific method
formulate general question
develop a hypothesis
testing the hypothesis
draw conclusions based on results
replication
repeating a study to check its results
case study
intensive study of 1 individual
list 2 drawbacks of case studies
researches generalized to other people
inability to pinpoint the exact causal factors leading to condition
observation
watching and recording what people do in particular circumstances
representative sample
a selected group of research subjects who reflect the relevant traits of larger population
random sampling
does not involve any pre-selection of any particular type of individual
correlation
considers whether changes in 1 variable are likely to be accompanied by changes in another variable
positive correlation
when both variables increase or both variables decrease
negative correlation
one variable increases while the other decreases
experimental research
considered the only method that can establish the causes of behavioral changes, psychological experiences and physiological process
experimental group
exposed to a condition
control group
not exposed to a condition
variables
components of experiementsthat refer to an event, condition, quality, behavior or trait
the researcher controls and manipulates the ___________variable
idependent
the effect being evaluated as a result of the independent variable is _______________
dependent variable
self-fulfilling prophecy
researches's expectations affect the results through the researches' actions
cross-sectional research
involves a design in which groups of subjects of different ages are compared on characteristics at the same point in time
longitudinal research
same group of subjects are tested over a period of time
cross-sectional studies will reflect what __________ _______
cohort differences
list the limitation with cross-sectional designs
difficulty ensuring all background variables except age are similar
list the limitation with longitudinal design
selective dropout and those that remain show behavior changes due to being in the study.
cross-sequential research
studies several groups of people at different ages; allows long-term study of development
ethology
natural unfolding of animal behavior
developmental theory
systematic statement that explains behavior and development over the life span
psychodynamic theory
considers human development in terms of intrinsic drives and motives and stresses unconscious forces
who is the founder of psychoanalysis
sigmund freud
the life instinct , by freud, is termed as _______ and the death instinct is called ________
eros

thanatos
freud separated the mind into 3 levels :
conscious, preconscious and the unconscious
conscious
small part of the mind which individuals are aware at any moment in time
preonscious mind
below the conscious and includes accessible memories
unconscious mind
contains thoughts, feelings, and memories that individual cannot recall at will
repression
process by which emotionally threatening experiences are banished from the conscious to unconscious
information-processing
encoded, stored, and retrieved
encoding
putting info into a form that can be stored in memory
storage
where information is retained
retrieval
involves recovering information from memory
the range of abilities each person inherits genetically at time of conception is _______
nature
environmental influences that occur after conception
nurture
twin studies are common methods of investigating ______________
nature v. nurture
concordance rates
how commonly a trait is shared between identical twins v. fraternal twins, v ordinary siblings
scientific method
general model which focuses on objectively gathered information using four steps
list the 4 steps of the scientific method
formulate general question
develop a hypothesis
testing the hypothesis
draw conclusions based on results
replication
repeating a study to check its results
case study
intensive study of 1 individual
list 2 drawbacks of case studies
researches generalized to other people
inability to pinpoint the exact causal factors leading to condition
observation
watching and recording what people do in particular circumstances
representative sample
a selected group of research subjects who reflect the relevant traits of larger population
random sampling
does not involve any pre-selection of any particular type of individual
correlation
considers whether changes in 1 variable are likely to be accompanied by changes in another variable
positive correlation
when both variables increase or both variables decrease
negative correlation
one variable increases while the other decreases