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21 Cards in this Set

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Stratification
Layering of sedimentary rock; results from deposition of materials over time.
Radiometric dating
Method of determining the age of a fossil by comparing the relative proportions of parent and daughter radioisotopes in rock samples or fossils.
Macroevolution
Large-scale patterns, trends, and rates of change among higher taxa.
Plate tectonics
Idea that great slabs (plates) of the Earth’s outer layer float about slowly on the mantle beneath them and have rafted continents to new positions over time.
Continental drift
Idea that the continents were once joined and have “drifted” apart
Initially based on the shapes
Homologous structures
Similar body part that occurs in different species as a result of descent from a common ancestor.
Analogous structures
Similar body parts in distantly related lineages that arise as a result of similar environmental pressures.
Biological species concept
The definition of a species is based on its reproductive isolation.
Pre-zygotic isolation
Mating or zygote formation is prevented
Post-zygotic isolation
Takes effect after hybrid zygotes form
Zygotes may die early, be weak, or be sterile
Allopatric speciation
Divergences end in speciation after a physical barrier that arises between populations of a species stops gene flow between them.
Sympatric speciation
In the absence of a physical barrier, a new species arises within the home range of an existing species.
Parapatric speciation
Mode of speciation in which subpopulations of a species that are maintaining contact along a common border evolve into distinct species.
Gradual model
Speciation model in which species emerge through many small morphological changes that accumulate over a long time period
Punctuation model
Speciation model in which most changes in morphology are compressed into brief period near onset of divergence
Adaptive radiation
Burst of diversification from a single lineage; gives rise to new species adapted to specific environmental niches
Extinction
Irrevocable loss of a species.
Domain
Classification of all species into the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Kingdoms
Classification of all species into the kingdoms Bacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
Scientific name
Binomial system of nomenclature
Devised by Carolus Linnaeus
Each species has a two-part Latin name
First part is generic (genus)
Second part is specific name (species)
Phylogeny
Evolutionary relationships among species, starting with an ancestral form and including branches leading to descendants.