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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
System Unit
case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data, they come in different shapes and sizes
Motherboard (System Board)
main circuit board of system unit
Chip
small piece of semiconducting material (usually silicon) on which integrated circuits are etched
CPU (central processing unit)
interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer
Multi-Core Processor
a chip with 2 or more separate processor cores
Control Unit
component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the options in the computer
ALU (arithmetic logic unit)
another component of the processor, performs arithmetic, comparison, and other comparisons
System Clock
small quartz crystal unit, controls timing of all computer operations
Clock Speed
pace of system clock, measured by number of ticks/second. (GHz, or one billion ticks/second)
Binary System
number system that has just two unique digits, zero and one, called bits
Bit (Binary Digit)
the smallest unit of data the computer can process
Byte (Eight bits)
provides enough different combinations of zeros and ones to represent 256 individual characters
Memory
consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing that data
Volatile Memory
loses its contents when computer's power is turned off
Nonvolatile Memory
Doesn't lose its contents when computer's power is turned off
RAM Memory (Random Access Memory, Main Memory)
consists of memory chips that can be read from and written to by the processor and other devices
ROM Memory (Read-Only Memory)
memory chips storing permanent data and instructions, can't be modified (nonvolatile)
Memory Module
small circuit board that usually holds RAM chips
Memory Slot
On the motherboard, holds memory modules
Cache
helps improve computer's processing times
L1 Cache
built directly in process chip, usually has very small capacity, ranging from 8KB to 128KB
L2 Cache
slightly slower than L1 cache, but has much larger capacity (64KB to 16MB)
Flash Memory
type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten
CMOS
provides high speeds, consumers little power, uses battery power to retain info. even when computer is off
Access Time
the amount of time it takes the processor to read data, instructions, and information from memory
Nanosecond (ns)
one billionth of a second
Expansion Slot
socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card
Adapter Card (Expansion Card)
a circuit board that enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals
Peripheral
a device that connects to the system unit and is controlled by the processor in the computer
Video Card (Graphics Card)
converts computer output into a video signal that travels through a cable to the monitor, which displays an image on the screen
Sound Card
enhances the sound-generating capabilities of a computer by allowing sound to be input through a microphone and output through external speakers or headphones
Hub
devices for connecting computers in a network
Memory Card
a removable flash memory device, usually no bigger than 1.5" in height or width, that you insert and remove from a slot in a pc, game console, mobile device, or card reader/writer
Port
the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit so that the peripheral can send data to or receive info. from the computer
USB Port (Universal Serial Bus Port)
can connect up to 127 different peripherals with a single connector, computers usually have 6 to 8 on their front or back
FireWire Port
similar to USB port in that it can connect many types of devices, and transfer quickly, allows you to connect up to 63 devices
SCSI (Scuzzy) Port
special high-speed parallel port, allows you to attach SCSI peripherals like disk drives and printers
Port Replicator
External device that provides connections to peripherals through ports built into the device
Docking Station
external device that attaches to a mobile computer or device contains a power connection and provides connections to peripherals, usually also includes slots for memory cards, optical disc drives, and other devices
Bus
electrical channel that allows the various devices both in and attached to system unit to communicate with each other
System Bus (Front Side Bus, FSB)
part of the motherboard and connects the processor to main memory
Backside Bus (BSB)
connects the processor to the cache
Expansion Bus
allows the processor to communicate with peripherals
Bay
opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment
Drive Bay
rectangular opening that typically holds disk drives
Power Supply
component of the system unit that converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power