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218 Cards in this Set

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a worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals.
Internet
commonly known today as a server, is a computer that provides services and connections to other computers on a network.
host
communications activity on the internet
traffic
takes place when the modem in your computer uses a standard telephone line to connect to the internet.
Dial-up access
a technology that provides high speed internet connections using regular copper telephone lines.
DSL digital subscriber line
allows access to high speed internet services through the cable television network.
cable modem
high speed internet connections use a dish shaped antenna on your house or business to communicate with a tower location via radio signals.
fixed wireless
communicates with a satellite dish to provide high speed internet connections via satellite
satellite modem
provide wireless internet connections to users with mobile computers or devices
hot spot
a business that provides individuals and companies access to the internet free or for a fee.
access provider
a regional or national access provider.
ISP Internet service provider
usually provides internet access to a specific geographic area.
regional ISP
a business that provides internet access in cities and towns nationwide.
national ISP
examples of this are AOL and MSN
OSP Online service provider
with dial up internet access the telephone number you dial connects you to an access point on the internet called this
POP point of presence
a company that provides wireless internet access to computers with wireless modems or access devices or to internet enabled mobile computers or devices
Wireless Internet Service Provider
several main transmission media carry the heaviest amount of traffic on the internet. These major carriers of network traffic are known collectively as the...
internet backbone
a number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the internet.
IP address (internet protocol address)
the text version of an IP address.
Domain name
the term sometimes used to describe organizations with a top level domain of com.
Dot-com
the method that the internet uses to store domain names and their corresponding IP addresses
domain name system (DNS)
translates the domain name to its associated IP address so data can be routed to the correct computer
DNS server
consists of a worldwide collection of electronic documents.
WWW or world wide web
each eletronic document on the web is called
web page
a collection of related web pages and associated items, such as documents and pictures, stored on a web server.
web site
a computer that delivers requested web pages to your computer.
web server
application software that allows users to access and view web pages.(Examples include explorer, netscape, firefox and mozilla)
web browser or browser
refers to the first page that a website displays.
home page
the process of a computer receiving information, such as a web page, from a server on the internet.
downloading
a web page has a unique address
URL or web address
a built in connection to another related web page or part of a web page
Link or hyperlink
refers to the activity of using links to explore the web
surfing the web
a set of rules that defines how pages transfer on the internet
http hypertext tranfer protocol
classifies web pages in an organized set of categories, such as sports or shopping, and related subcategories.
subject directory
a program that finds web sites and web pages.
search engine
search engines require that you enter a word or phrase that define the item about which you want information
search text or keyword
Portal, News, Informational, Business/marketing,entertainment, advocacy, blog, wiki, content aggregator, rss 2.0, personal,and educational are all examples of what?
types of web sites
a web site that offers a variety of internet services from a single, convenient location.
portal
a web site that joins a specific group of people with similar interests or relationships.
web community
an informal web site consisting of time stamped articles, or posts, in a diary or journal format, usually listed in reverse chronological order.
blog short for weblog
a collaborative web site that allows users to add to, modify, or delete the web site content via their web browser.
wiki
a business that gathers and organizes web content and then distributes, or feeds, the content to subscribers for free or a fee.
content aggregator
refers to any application that combines text with graphics, animation, audio, video, and virtual reality.
multimedia
a digital representation of nontext information such as drawing, chart, or photograph.
graphic or graphical image
a small version of a larger graphic
thumbnail
the appearance of motion created by displaying a series of still images in sequence.
animation
this format reduces an audio file to about one-tenth its original size, while preserving much of the original quality of sound.
MP3
the process of transferring data in a continuous and even flow
streaming
enables you to listen to music as it downloads to your computer
streaming audio
consists of full motion images that are played back at various speeds
video
the use of computers to simulate a real or imagined environment that appears as a three dimensional space.
virtual reality
a program that extends the capability of a browser
plug-in
the development and maintenance of web pages
web publishing
a business transaction that occurs over an electronic network such as the internet
e-commerce
the transmission of messages and files via a computer network
e-mail
a combination of a user name and a domain name that identifies a user so he or she can recieve internet e-mail
email address
a unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that identifies a specific user.
user name
an internet standard that permits file uploading and downloading (transferring) with other computers on the internet.
FTP file transfer protocol
the process of transferring documents, graphics, and other objects from your computer to a server on the internet.
uploading
an online area in which users have written discussions about a particular subject
newsgroup
a group of email names and addresses given a single name
mailing list
a real time typed conversation that takes place on a computer
chat
means that you and the people with whom you are conversing are online at the same time
real time
a location on an internet server that permits users to chat with each other.
chat room
a real time internet communications service that notifies you when one or more people are online and then allows you to exchange messages or files or join a private chat room with them
Instant Messaging
enables users to speak to other users over the internet using their desktop computer, mobile computer, or mobile device.
internet telophony
short for internet etiquette, is the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the internet
netiquette
a collection of data organized in a manor that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data.
database
processed data; it is organized, meaningful and useful.
information
Qualities of Valuable Information
Accurate Information, verifiable information, timely information, organized information, accessible information, useful information, cost-effective information.
a combination of one or more related characters or bytes and is the smallest unit of data a user accesses.
field
uniquely identifies each field
field name
defines the maximum number of characters a field can contain
field size
specifies the kind of data a field can contain and how the field is used
data type
common data types include
text, numeric, auto number, currency, date, memo, yes/no, hyperlink, object
a group of related fields
record
a field that uniquely identifies each record in a file
key field or primary key
a collection of related records stored on a storage medium such as a hard disk, CD, or DVD.
data file
refers to procedures that keep data current
file maintenance
the process of comparing data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is correct
validation
each department or area within an organization has its own set of files
file processing system
two major weaknesses of file processing systems
data redundancy and isolated data
many programs and users share the data in the database
database approach
a program that generally has a more user friendly interface than the DBMS.
front end
an application that supports a front end program
back end
strength of the database approach
reduced data redundancy, improved data integrity, shared data, easier access, and reduced development time.
contains data about each file in the database and each field in those files.
data dictionary sometimes called repository
a value that the DBMS initially displays in a field
default value
a reqest for specific data from the database
query
consists of simple english-like statements that allow users to specify the data to display, print or store.
query language
a feature of DBMS's that has a graphical user interface to assist users with retrieving data.
query by example (QBE)
a window on the screen that provides areas for entering or changing data in a database
form sometimes called a data entry form
allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report.
report generator, also called a report writer
a listing of activities that change the contents of the database.
log
uses the logs and/or backups to restore a database when it becomes damaged or destroyed.
recovery utility
a backup plan in which all data is backed up whenever a change is made.
continuous backup
consists of rules and standards that define how the database organizes data.
data model
a database that stores data in tables that consist of rows and columns.
relational database
a query language that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data.
structured query language (SQL)
a process designed to ensure the data within the relations (tables) contains the least amount of duplication.
normalization
stores data in objects
Object oriented database
an item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data.
object
examples of applications appropriate for an object oriented database include
multimedia database, groupware database, computer aided design, hypertext database and web database.
stores data in dimensions
multidimensional database
allow users to access and analyze any view of the database data.
hypercube
a huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions.
data warehouse
a smaller version of a data warehouse is
data mart
a computer that stores and provides access to a database
database server
focuses on the meaning and usage of data
database analyst DA
requires a more technical inside view of the data
database administrator DBA
any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, software, data, information, or processing capability.
computer security risk
any illegal act involving a computer generally is referred to as
computer crime
refers to online or internet based illegal acts
cybercrime
refers to someone who accesses a computer or network illegally
hacker
someone who accesses a computer or network illegally but has the intent of destroying data, stealing information, or other malicious action.
cracker
has the same intent as a cracker but does not have the technical skills and knowledge.
script kiddie
someone who uses email as a vehicle for extortion.
cyberextortionist
someone who uses the internet or network to destroy or damage computers for political reasons
cyberterrorist
a web site that evaluates your computer to check for internet and email vulnerabilities
online security service
a potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user's knowledge of permission
virus
a program that copies itself repeatedly, using up resources and possibly shutting down the computer or network.
worm
a program that hides within or looks like a legitimate program
trojan horse
programs that act without a user's knowledge and deliberately alter the computers operations
malware
the destructive event or prank the program is intended to deliver
payload
a company or person you believe will not send a viru infected file knowingly
trusted source
protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, or storage media, or on incoming files.
antivirus program
a known specific pattern of virus code
virus signature or virus definition
the antivirus program records information such as the file size and file creation in a separate innoculation file
to innoculate
a separate area of a hard disk that holds the infected file until the infection can be removed
quarantine
an email msg that warns users of a nonexistent virus, worm, or trojan horse.
virus hoax
an assault whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an internet service such as the web or email
denail of service attack DoS attack
a computer that is completely unaware it is being used as part of a network that attacks other systems
zombie
a program or set of instructions in a program that allows users to bypass security controls when accessing a program, computer, or network.
back door
a technique intruders use to make their network or internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network.
spoofing
hardware and/or software that protects a network's resources from intrusion by users on another network such as the internet
firewall
a server outside the company's network that controls which communications pass into the company's network
proxy server
a utility the detects and protects a personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions.
personal firewall
a vulnerable computer that is set up to entice an intruder to break into it
honeypot
the use of a compute or network without permission
unauthorized access
the use of a computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal activities.
unauthorized use
a security measure that defines who can access a computer, when they can access it, and what actions they can take while accessing the computer.
access control
records in a file both successful and unsuccessful attempts.
audit trail
a unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers, that identifies one specific user.
user name or user ID
a private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to certain computer resources
password
a numeric password, either assigned by a company or selected by a user
PIN
authenticate's a person's identity by translating a personal characteristic, such as a fingerprint, into a digital code that then is compared with a digital code stored in the computer verifying a physical or behavioral characteristic.
biometric device
the act of stealing computer equipment
hardware theft
the act of defacing or destroying computer equipment
hardware vandalism
the unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted software
piracy
the right to use software
license agreement
occurs when someone steals personal or confidential information
information theft
a process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access.
encryption
to decipher data to make legible
decrypt
an encrypted code that a person, web site, or company attaches to an electronic message to verify the identity of the message center
digital signature
a web site that uses encryption techniques to secure its data is known as a
secure site
a notice that guarantees a user or a web site is legitimate
digital certification
an authorized person or company that issues and verifies digital certificates
certificate authority
provides encryption of all data that passes between a client and an internet server
Secure Sockets Layer SSL
the prolonged malfunction of a computer
system failure
any unwanted signal, usually varying quickly, that is mixed with the normal voltage entering the computer
noise
occurs when the electrical supply drops
undervoltage
a prolonged undervoltage
brownout
a complete power failure
blackout
occurs when the incoming electrical power increases significantly above the normal 120 volts.
overvoltage or power surge
a momentary overvoltage, occurs when the increase in power lasts for less than one millisecond
spike
uses special electrical components to smooth out minor noise, provide a stable current flow, and keep an overvoltage from reaching the computer and other electronic equipment
surge protector or surge supressor
a device that contains surge protection circuits and one or more batteries that can provide power during a temporary or permanent loss of power.
uninterruptible power supply UPS
has duplicate components so it can continue to operate when one of its main components fail
fault- tolerant computer
the moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and information systems.
computer ethics
refers to unique and original works such as ideas, inventions, art, writings, processes, company and product names, and logos.
itellectual property IP
the rights to which creators are entitled for their work
intellectual property rights
gives authors and artists exclusive rights to duplicate, publish, and sell their materials.
copyright
a written guideline that helps determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical
code of conduct
refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them
information privacy
a small text file that a web server stores on your computer
cookie
a program placed on a computer without the user's knowledge that secretly collects information about the user
spyware
a program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on web pages, email msgs, or other internet services.
adware
an unsolicited email msg or newsgroup posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once
spam
a service that blocks email msgs from designated sources
email filtering
a scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking email msg that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information
phishing
a scam similar to phishing where a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and financial info except they do so via spoofing
pharming
gaining unauthorized access or obtaining confidential information by taking advantage of the trusting human nature of some victims and the naivety of others.
social engineering
involves the use of computer's to observe, record, and review an employee's use of a computer
employee monitoring
a program that restricts access to specified web sites
web filtering software
the discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks
computer forensics
an injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendonds, ligaments and joints.
repetitive strain injury (RSI)
an applied science devoted to incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of items in the workplace.
ergonomics
when the computer consumes someone's entire social life
computer addiction
involves reducing the electricity and environmental waste while using a computer
green computing
consists of manufacturers and distributors of computers and computer-related hardware such as disk and tape drives, monitors, printers, and communications and networking devices.
computer equipment field
consists of companies that develop, manufacture, and support a wide range of software.
computer software field
provides preventive maintenance, component installation, and repair services to customers.
computer service and repair field
must possess a general understanding of computers and a specific knowledge of the product they are selling.
computer salesperson
provides computer services to his or her clients, typically hired based on computer expertise.
IT consultant
offers programs primarily in the areas of programming,web design and development, graphics design, hardware maintenance, networking, personal computer support, and security. Also known as technical school, vocational school, or career college.
Trade school
ensures that if you transfer to a college or university from a trade school, you will receive credit for most of the courses taken at your current school
articulation agreement
also called software engineering, this curriculum focuses on the theory of programming and operating systems.
computer science
this curriculum teaches students how to design and develop the electronic components found in computers and peripheral devices.
computer engineering
a scientific and educational organization dedicated to advancing knowledge and proficiency of information technology.
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
a professional association with nearly 9,000 members consisting of programmers, system analysts, and information processing managers.
Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP)
a collection of people with common computer equipment or software interests that meets regularly to share information.
user group
the process of verifying the technical knowledge of an individual who has demonstrated competence in a particular area.
certification
develop and administer the examinations to determine whether a person is qualified for certification.
sponsoring organizations
a server outside the company's network that controls which communications pass into the company's network
proxy server
a utility the detects and protects a personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions.
personal firewall
a vulnerable computer that is set up to entice an intruder to break into it
honeypot
the use of a compute or network without permission
unauthorized access
the use of a computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal activities.
unauthorized use
a security measure that defines who can access a computer, when they can access it, and what actions they can take while accessing the computer.
access control
records in a file both successful and unsuccessful attempts.
audit trail
a unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers, that identifies one specific user.
user name or user ID
a private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to certain computer resources
password
a numeric password, either assigned by a company or selected by a user
PIN
authenticate's a person's identity by translating a personal characteristic, such as a fingerprint, into a digital code that then is compared with a digital code stored in the computer verifying a physical or behavioral characteristic.
biometric device
the act of stealing computer equipment
hardware theft
the act of defacing or destroying computer equipment
hardware vandalism
the unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted software
piracy
the right to use software
license agreement