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195 Cards in this Set

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SPECIAL SENSORY RECEPTORS ARE DISTINCT RECEPTOR CELLS, MOST OF WHICH ARE MODIFIED?
DENDRITES OF SENSORY NEURONS
CHEMORECEPTORS RESPOND TO WHAT?
CHEMICALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION
DESCRIBE FILIFORM PAPILLAE
CONTAIN NO TASTE BUDS AND PROVIDE FRICTION FOR MOVEMENT OF FOOD BY THE TONGUE
DESCRIBE CIRCUMVALLATE PAPILLAE
LARGEST AND LEAST NUMEROUS
THE PROCESS BY WHICH STIMULUS ENERGY IS CONVERTED INTO A NERVE IMPULSE
TRANSDUCTION
IN ORDER TO SMELL, A PARTICULAR CHEMICAL MUST BE WHAT?
VOLATILE AND WATER SOLUBLE
THE SENSE OF SMELL IS LINKED TO WHAT PART OF THE BRAIN?
TEMPORAL LOBE
WHAT PART OF THE BRAIN IS RESPONSIBLE FOR EMOTIONAL RESPONSES TO ODORS?
HYPOTHALAMUS
AREA WHERE THE EYELIDS MEET IS KNOWN AS WHAT?
MEDIAL & LATERAL CANTHI
LOCATED AT THE MEDIAL CANTHUS, CONTAINS SEBACEOUS AND SWEAT GLANDS, AND COLLECTRS SANDMAN'S EYE SAND
LACRIMAL CARUNCLE
VERITICLE FOLD OF SKIN ON BOTH SIDES OF NOSE THAT COVERS THE MEDIAL COMMISSURE IN MOST ASIANS
EPICANTHIC FOLD
THE MODIFIED SEBACEOUS GLANDS THAT PRODUCE AND OILY SUBSTANCE TO LUBRICATE THE EYES AND LIDS; PREVENTS LIDS FROM STICKING TOGETHER
TARSAL, OR MEIBOMIAN GLANDS
PRODUCES MUCOUS TO PREVENT EYES FROM DRYING OUT.
CONJUNCTIVA
ITS PURPOSE IS SECRETION FOR PROTECTION OF THE EYE; CONTAINS MUCUS, ANTIBODIES, AND LYSOZYMES
LACRIMAL FLUID
COVERS THE ENTIRE ASPECT OF THE EYE EXCEPT THE IRIS.
SCLERA
MOST SENSITIVE PART OF EYE THAT COVERS THE IRIS
CORNEA
HIGHLY VASCULAR, DARK BROWN MEMBRANE; MIDDLE COAT SEPERATING THE FIBROUS AND NEURAL TUNICS
CHOROID
SMOOTH MUSCLES THAT CHANGE THE SHAPE OF THE LENS
CILIARY BODY
SMOOTH MUSCLES OF THE IRIS THAT CHANGE THE PUPIL SIZE FOR CONSTRICTION
CIRCULAR MUSCLES
SMOOTH MUSCLES OF THE IRIS THAT CHANGE THE PUPIL SIZE FOR DILATION
RADIAL MUSCLES
LIST THE FUNCTIONS OF THE EPITHELIAL CELLS OF THE PIGMENTED LAYER OF THE RETINA
ABSORB LIGHT, ACT AS PHAGOCYTES, AND STORE VITAMIN A
PART OF EYE THAT CONTAINS NO PHOTORECEPTORS, SO LIGHT STRIKING THIS SPOT CAN NOT BE PERCEIVED
OPTIC DISC
DIM-LIGHT VISION RECEPTORS
RODS
BRIGHT-LIGHT VISION VISION RECEPTORS; HIGH ACUITY OF COLOR VISION
CONES
HIGHEST CONCENTRATION OF CONES, NO RODS
FOVEA CENTRALIS
FORMS IN THE ANTERIOR CAVITY OF THE EYE AS IT FILTER FROM THE CAPILLARIES
AQUEOUS HUMOR
FORMS IN POSTERIOR CAVITY IN THE EMBRYO AND LASTS FOR A LIFETIME
VITREOUS HUMOR
AVASCULAR PART OF EYE WITH THE FUNCTION OF FOCUSING
LENS
TWO FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE FOCAL DISTANCES
DISTANCE OF OBJECT FROM THE LENS AND SHAPE OF THE LENS
IN REFERENCE TO VISION,
ACCOMODATION MAY BE DEFINED AS
CHANGING LENS SHAPE
MAXIMUM BULGE A LENS CAN ACHIEVE
NEAR POINT VISION
WHAT PART OF THE BRAIN IS ASSOCIATED WITH VISION?
OCCIPITAL LOBE
SOUND IS STIMULATED WHEN WHAT HAPPENS?
MECHANORECEPTORS ARE PHYSICALLY DISTURBED BY SOUND VIBRATIONS
MODIFIED APOCRINE SWEAT GLANDS THAT SECRETE YELLOW-BROWN SUBSTANCE IN THE EAR
CERUMINOUS GLANDS
TANSMITS VIBRATIONS TO TINY BONES
TYMPANIC MEMBRANE
LINKS THE MIDDLE EAR TO NASOPHARYNX AND EQUALIZES PRESSURE IN MIDDLE EAR CAVITY
EUSTACHIAN TUBE
RESPONSIBLE FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF VIBRATION
AUDITORY OSSICLES
STRUCTURES THAT TRANSMIT VIBRRATORY MOTION OF EARDRUM
TENSORS TYMPANI AND STAPEDIUS
CONSISTS OF VESTIBULE, SEMICIRCULAR CANAL, COCHLEA, AND PERILYMPH
BONY LABYRINTH
CONTAINS ENDOLYMPH AND IS LOCATED WITHIN THE BONY LABYRINTH
MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH
HOUSES RECEPTOR ORGAN FOR HEARING, VESTIBULE, AND SEMICIRCULAR CANALS; ASSOCIATED WITH EQUILIBRIUM
COCHLEA
SECRETES ENDOLYMPH
STRIA VASCULARIS
CENTER FOR BALANCE IN THE BRAIN
CEREBELLUM
CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES SECRETED BY THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM TO THEIR TARGET CELLS
HORMONES
2 WAY HORMONES EXERT THEIR EFFECTS
ALTER ENZYME ACTIVITY AND ALTER MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY
WHAT DOES THE STEROID HORMONE LINK WITH?
DNA
3 KINDS OF STIMULI
NEURAL, HUMORAL, AND HORMONAL
WHAT DOES LACTOGENIC MEAN
MILK PRODUCTION
LUTEINIZING REFERS TO WHAT?
OVULATION
ADH AND OXYTOCIN ARE PRODUCED WHERE?
POSTERIOR PITUITARY
WHAT HORMONE STIMULATES WATER ABSORPTION BY THE KIDNEYS
ADH
WHAT HORMONE STIMULATES MILK SECRETION
OXYTOCIN
SECRETES THE BODY'S MAJOR METABOLIC HORMONES
THYROID GLAND
HORMONE THAT INCREASES ENERGY UTILIZATION AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION
THYROXINE
3 CORTICOSTEROIDS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ZONE IN THE ADRENAL CORTEX
GLUCOCORTICOIDS, MINERALOCORTICOIDS, AND GONADOCORTICOIDS
THE EMERGENCY HORMONE
EPINEPHRINE
WHAT STRUCTURE IN THE PANCREAS SECRETES ENDOCRINE HORMONES
ISLETS OF LANGERHANS
WHAT HORMONE PRODUCED BY THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS INCREASES GLUCOSE
GLUCAGON
WHAT HORMONE PRODUCED BY THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS LOWERS GLUCOSE
INSULIN
HORMONE PRODUCED BY THE PINEAL GLAND THAT CAUSES DROWSINESS
MELATONIN
HORMONE PRODUCED IN KIDNEYS THAT STIMULATES PRODUCTION OF RBCs
ERYTROPOIETIN PEPTIDE HORMONE
WHAT HORMONES ARE MADE BY THE CORPUS LUTEUM
PROGESTIN AND RELAXIN
HORMONE THAT PREPARES THE UTERUS FOR IMPLANTATION
PROGESTIN
SKIN PRODUCES WHAT HORMONE NECESSARY FOR ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM; AN INACTIVE FORM OF VITAMIN D3
CHOLECALCIFEROL
WHAT IS THE REASON THAT ANTICANCER DRUGS HAVE SUCH A DRASTIC EFFECT ON THE DIGESTIVE TRACT?
HIGH RATE OF CELL DIVISION INHIBITED AND LOST EPITHELIAL CELLS ARE NOT REPLACED; RESULTS IN FAILURE TO ABSORB NUTRIENTS
INNER LINING OF DIGESTIVE TRACT THAT CONSISTS OF BLOOD VESSELS, LYMPHOID TISSUE, NERVE ENDINGS, LYMPHATIC VESSELS, AND MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE
LAMINA PROPRIA
LOCATED IN MUSCULARIS EXTERNA BETWEEN THE CIRCULAR AND LONGITUDINAL LAYER; RESPONSIBLE FOR COORDINATING MOVEMENTS ALONG THE TRACT
PLEXUS AUERBACH OR MYENTERIC PLEXUS
HANGS LIKE AN APRON FROM THE STOMACH
GREATER OMENTUM
PARTIALLY DIGESTED FOOD IN THE MOUTH
BOLUS
SPACE BETWEEN THE CHEEKS OF LIPS AND THE TEETH
VESTIBULE
PREVENTS FOOD FROM ENTERING THE NASAL CAVITY
UVULA
LIST THE PARTS OF A TOOTH
CROWN, NECK, ROOT
LAYERS OF A TOOTH
ENAMEL, DENTIN, AND PULP
BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES ENTER A TOOTH THROUGH WHAT?
APICAL FORAMEN
TYPE OF SECRETORY CELL FOUND IN SALIVA THAT PRODUCES WATERY FLUID? VISCOUS FLUID?
SEROUS CELL; MUCOUS CELLS
LIST THE TYPES OF SALIVARY GLANDS AND THE SECRETION THEY PRODUCE
PAROTID-WATERY, SUBLINGUAL-VISCOUS, SUBMANDIBULAR-MIX
THE ESOPHAGUS PENETRATES THE DIAPHRAGM AT AN OPENING KNOWN AS WHAT?
ESOPHAGEAL HIATUS
LIST REGIONS OF THE STOMACH AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
CARDIAC-CARDIAC SPHINCTER PREVENTS FOOD FROM REENTERING ESOPHAGUS, FUNDUS-TEMP. STORAGE, BODY-MIXING TANK, PYLORUS-PYLORIC SPHINCTER TO REGULATE RELEASE OF CHYME INTO DUODENUM
PARIETAL OR OXYNTIC CELLS COMMON IN DIGESTIVE GLANDS, SECRETE WHAT TWO SUBSTANCES?
INTRINSIC FACTOR AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID
WHAT FUNCTION OF THE STOMACH IS ESSENTIAL TO LIFE? WHY?
SECRETION OF THE INTRINSIC FACTOR IS NECESSARY FOR NORMAL ERYTHROPOIESIS
LIST REGIONS OF SMALL INTESTINE AND THEIR FUNCTION
DUODENUM-MIXING BOWL, JEJUNUM-FINAL DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION, ILEUM-ILEOCECAL VALVE CONTROLS FLOW FROM ILEUM TO CECUM AND ALSO PEYER'S PATCHES TO PROTECT FROM BACTERIA OF LG. INTESTINE
INTESTINAL GLANDS AT THE BASE OF THE VILLI THAT SECRETE A WATERY FLUID THAT SERVES AS A VEHICLE FOR DIGESTED FOOD
CRYPTS OF LIEBERKUHN
LARGEST GLAND IN BODY
LIVER
LARGE PHAGOCYTIC CELLS IN INNER LININGS OF HEPATIC SINUSOIDS THAT REMOVE BACTERIA AND FOREIGN BODIES THAT GAIN ENTRANCE THROUGH HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN
KUPFFER CELLS OR HEPATIC MACROPHAGES
MAIN FUNTIONS OF THE LIVER
METABOLISM, DETOXIFY, FILTER, STORAGE, SECRETION
FUNCTION OF BILE SALTS
EMULSIFY FATS
DESCRIBE FUNCTIONS OF LARGE INTESTINE
SECRETES NO ENZYMES, REABSORBS WATER AND ELECTROLYTES, CONTAINS BACTERAIL FLORA NECESSARY TO SYNTHESIZE VIT. B COMPLEX AND VIT. K
DESCRIBE APPENDIX
MUCOSA AND SUBMUCOSA MAINLY COMPOSED OF LYMPHOID TISSUE; NO ROLE IN DIGESTION
FUNCTION OF RECTAL VALVES
SEPERATE FECES FROM FLATUS
AVG. pH OF BLOOD
7.4
PERCENT OF WHOLE BLOOD OCCUPIED BY FORMED ELEMENTS IS WHAT?
HEMATOCRIT
PLASMA MINUS CLOOTIN PROTEINS?
SERUM
LIST PROTEINS IN PLASMA
ALBUMIN, GLOBULIN, AND FIBRINOGEN
RBC GRAVEYARD
SPLEEN
LIST THE GRANULOCYTES
BASOPHILS, EOSINOPHILS, NEUTROPHILS
LIST AGRANULOCYTES
LYMPHOCYTES AND MONOPHILS
LARGEST WBC
LYMPHOCYTES
FUNTION OF PLATELETS
SERVE AS PLUG IN DAMAGED SURFACE AND RELEASES SEROTONIN FOR VASOCONSTRICTION
PRESENCE OF RH IN THE RBC MEMBRANE INDICATES WHAT? ABSENCE?
RH+; RH-
REMOVAL OF UNNEEDED CLOTS
FIBRINOLYSIS
CLUMPING OF RBC FOLLOWING TRANSFUSION
AGGLUTINATION
CELL MEMBRANE OF RBC; THEIR PRESENCE DETERMINES BLOOD TYPE
ANTIGENS
3 WALLS OF THE HEART
EPICARDIUM, MYOCARDIUM, ENDOCARDIUM
CHAMBERS OF HEART
LEFT AND RIGHT ATRIA AND LEFT AND RIGHT VENTRICLES
TWO TYPE OF HEART VALVES
ATRIOVENTRICULAR AND SEMILUNAR
DESCRIBE SINOATRIAL (SA) NODE
CONTAINS PACEMAKER CELLS THAT ESTABLISH THE HEART'S RATE
WHAT ARE DEFLECTION WAVES?
WAVES IN AN ECG; P WAVE, QRS WAVE, AND T WAVE
CAUSED BY DEPOLARIZATION OF ATRIA
P WAVE
APPEARS PRIOR TO CONTRACTION OF VENTRICULAR WALLS
QRS WAVE
CAUSED BY THE REPOLARIZATION OF THE FIVERS AT END OF VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
T WAVE
CARDIAC CONTRACTION, CAUSES PRESSURE TO GO UP
SYSTOLE
CARDIAC RELAXATION; PRESSURE GOES DOWN
DIASTOLE
HEART SOUNDS ARE DUE TO WHAT?
CLOSING OF THE VALVES
WHAT SOUND IS HEARD WHEN THE AV VALVES ARE CLOSING
S1
WHAT SOUND OCCURS WHEN SEMILUNAR VALVES ARE CLOSING
S2
SOUNDS OF HEART THAT MAY BE AUDIBLE DUE TO BLOOD FLOW THROUGH VENTRICLES AND ATRIAL CONTRACTION
3RD & 4TH SOUNDS
WHAT SUPPLIES THE CARDIAC CELLS WITH HIGH RESISTANCE TO FATIGUE?
LARGE MITOCHONDRIA ACCOUNT FOR 25% OF VOLUME OF THE CARDIAC CELLS
LIST WALLS OF BLOOD VESSELS
TUNICA EXTERNA (ADVENTITIA), TUNICA MEDIA, AND TUNICA INTERNA (INTIMA)
TYPES OF BLOOD VESSELS
ELASTIC CONDUCTING ARTERIES AND MUSCULAR (OR MEDIUM-SIZED) DISTRIBUTING ARTERIES
TYPE OF CAPILLARY FOUND IN ALL TISSUES AND CONTAIN INTERCELLULAR CLEFTS
CONTINUOUS CAPILLARIES
CAPILLARIES IN AREAS THAT MUST BE PERMEABLE; HAVE OPENINGS KNOWN AS WINDOWS, PORES OR FENESTRATIONS
FENESTRATED CAPILLARIES
"LEAKY CAPPILARIES" FOUND WHERE LARGE MOLECULES MUST PASS
SINUSOIDAL CAPILLARIES
CONSIST OF THIN WALLS AND LARGE LUMEN TO LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE; THEY FUNCTION AS BLOOD RESERBOIR OR CAPACITANCE VESSELS
VEINS
RHYTHMIC PRESSURE OSCILLATION THAT ACCOMPANIES EACH HEART RATE
PULSE
FACTORS IN ARTERIAL PRESSURE
MAP=DIASTOLIC PRESSURE + PULSE PRESSURE/3
LIST SOURCES OF RESISTANCE IN BLOOD VESSELS
VISCOSITY, TOTAL BLOOD VESSEL LENGTH, BLOOD VESSEL DIAMETER
WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON BLOOD PRESSURE
CAUSES B.P. TO DROP BY INHIBITING THE RELEASE OF ADH AND THEREBY PROMOTES VASODILATION
FUNCTIONS OF LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
FLUID RECOVERY, LIPID ABSORPTION, IMMUNITY
HIGHLY SPECIALIZED LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES IN THE VILLI OF INTESTINAL MUCOSA; PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN ABSORBING DIGESTED FATS FROM THE INTESTINE
LACTEALS
THE SMALLES LYMPHATIC VESSELS; WEAVE BETWEEN CELLS AND BLOOD CAPILLARIES IN LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUES OF BODY; ALSO CONSIST OF CONTINUOUS, FENESTRATED AND SINUSOIDAL
LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES
MECHANISMS OF LYMPH TRANSPORT
MUSCULAR ACTION AND CONTRACTION, BREATHING, VALVES, PULSATION OF ATERIES,
THYMUS DEPENDENT LYMPHOID CELLS THAT PROCTECT BODY AGAINST ANTIGENS
T CELLS OR T LYMPHOCYTES
BONE-DERIVED LYMPHOID CELLS THAT SECRETE ANTIBODIES
B CELLS OR B LYMPHOCYTES
LYMPHOID ORGANS FOUND IN CLUSTERS ALONG THE LYMPHATIC VESSELS OF THE BODY; THEY FILTER LYMPH
LYMPH NODES
CONTAINS LARGEST COLLECTION OF LYMPHOID TISSUE IN BODY; LARGEST LYMPOID ORGAN
SPLEEN
THE LIQUID PART OF BLOOD IS PLASMA, ONCE THIS FLUID IS IN TISSUES, ITS KNOWN AS WHAT?
INTERSTITIAL FLUID
WHEN FLUID IS RECOVERED FROM TISSUE, IT'S KNOWN AS WHAT?
LYMPH
CAPILLARIES OF LYMPHATICS?
LACTEALS
LYMPH ONLY FLOWS TOWARD WHAT STRUCTURE?
THE HEART
LYMPHOID TISSUE HOUSES WHAT?
LYMPHOCYTES AND PHAGOCYTIC CELLS
LYMPH NODES ARE WHAT?
LYMPH NODES--ORGANS!!!
COLLECTING VESSELS OF LYMPHATIC SYSTEM; 2 MAJOR TYPES ARE SUPERFICIAL AND DEEP
LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES
COLLECTS LYMPH FROM BODY INFERIOR TO THE DIAPHRAGM AND ON LEFT SIDE ABOVE DIAPHRAGM
THORACIC DUCT
EXPANDED BASE OF THE THORACIC DUCT; STORES CHYLE
CISTERNA CHYLI
SMALLER OF THE COLLECTING DUCTS; COLLECTS LYMPH FROM RIGHT SIDE OF BODY ABOVE DIAPHRAGM
RIGHT LYMPHATIC DUCT
the entire process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and the body cells
respiration
movement of air in and out of the lungs
pulmonary respiration
exchange of gases between lungs and blood
external respiration
exchange of gases between blood and the cells
internal respiration
respiratory system can be divided into what two parts
upper and lower
consists of nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx
upper resp. system
consists of pharynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
lower resp. system
2 portions of respiratory tract
conducting and respiratory
function of nasal cavity
warms and humidifies air and is passageway for air
the hairs of __?__ filter air
vibrissae
contains sweat and sebaceous glands and numerous hair follicles; lies in nasal cavity
vestibule
where are the receptors for smell
olfactory mucosa
contains scattered goblet cells that rest on lamina propria
respiratory mucosa
an antibacterial enzyme contained in mucous
lysozyme
secrete defensins to help getrid of invading microbes in resp. tract
epithelial cells
defensins are a natural what
antibiotic
serve as resonant chambers which affect the quality of the voice; mainly reduce weight of the skull
paranasal sinsuses
serves as passageway for both food and air
oropharynx
serves as passageway of food & air and is lined with stratisfied squamous epithelium
laryngopharynx
serves as passageway to air only
nasopharynx
3 small cartilages that form part of the lateral and posterior walls of larynx
arytenoid, cuneiform and corniculate cartilage
lower folds responsible for vocal sounds
true vocal cords or vocal fold
2 pair of horizontal folds in mucous membrane which help prevent foreign objects from entering the glottis
false vocal cords or vestibular folds
collectiv term for when the abdominal muscles contract and abdominal pressure rises which helps empty the rectum or bladder & can stabilize the body trunk when lifting
valsalva's maneuver
who many pieces of cartilage in the trachea? what type of cartilage?
15-20; hyaline
in alveolar membrane; squamous cells that lined aveolar wall; primary source of angiostnesin converting enzyme
type I cells
dust cells in alveolar membrane that phagocytize any foreign bodies
alveolar macrophages
cuboidal cells in alveolar membranethat secrete surfectant
type II cells
an oily secretion containing a mix of phospholipids and proteins
surfectant
reduces surface tension in alveolar fluid and decreases tendancy of alveolar to collapse
surfectant
smalles subdivision of the lung visible to the naked eye
lobule
air in the collapsed alveoli that cease to be involved in gas exchange
alveolar dead space
volume moved in and out of the lungs during quiet breathing; total amt. of exchangeable air
tidal volume
volume that remains in the lungs even after a maximal exhalation
residual volume
measures vital capacity, expiratory reserve, and inspiratory reserve
spirometer
increases in TLC, FRC, & RV may occur as result of what
hyperinflation of lungs in obstructive diseases
healthy lungs can exhale around?
80% of the FVC w/in 1 sec.
determines air movement throughout respiratory cycle
pneumotachometer
states the total pressure exerted by a mix of gases is the sum of the parietal pressures of each gas in the mixture
dalton's law of parietal pressures
responsible for basic rhythm of breathing
dorsal resp. group
factors that affect depth and rate of breathing
irritating factors and changes in pressure
what chemical factors (ions) are in the arterial blood
carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen ions
a copound produced by RBCs as they break down glucose by anaerobic processes called glycolysis
BPG or biphosphoglycerate
supplies nerves to the kidneys which is an offshoot of the celiac plexus and nerves from the splanchnic nerves
renal plexus
function of renal corpuscle
filtration of plasma
visceral layer of bowman's capsule consits of highly modified branching epithelial cells called whaT?
podocytes with complex processes or "feet" called pedicels
opening in between podocytes that allow filtrate to pass to capsular spaces
filtration slits or slit pores
the thick segment of loop of henle for reabsorption of sodium and chlorine
ascending limb
secretesions, acids, and other toxins; selective absorption of sodium, water, and calcium; part of loop of henle usually without microvilli
distal convoluted tubule
formed by the macula densa and the DCT and cells in wall of afferent arteriole
juxtaglomerular apparatus