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197 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Are the basic units of life made of molecules and they carry out all different functions. They use energy, metabolism, remove waste, and they build things up and down.
Are a collection of similar cells and they are grouped together.
Provide cell stability and transort cargo along neurons. They are made up of tubulin. Kinesin molecule has the cargo attached to the top with 2 legs that walk along the microtubule and deliver the cargo.
are fold of membrane that are in the lungs and the oviducts. They help sweep out debris or dust in the lungs. Smokers cough in the morning b/c the cilia aren't working. They sweep the ovum down to the uterus.
are water soluble and form the membrane backbone. they are in all cells and provide fluidity and flexibility.
is present in all membranes or cells and fits b/w fatty acids. It creates stability and fluidity. You must have cholesterol to stay alive.
tubes that pass things from one side of membrane to the other. Ions are the only things that can pass through. they open and close in membrane and allow certain ions controlled by receptors.
are on the outside where thy bind to an agonist and then they activate enzymes or a channel.
are cellular rivets that are strong and anchor adjacent cells under force. In the heart, skin, digestive tract, uterus, and bladder.
Gap Junctions
are channels b/w cells that allow ions to pass adn electrical signals to pass cell to cell. In some smooth muscle, hear, and uterus.
is fat soluble. Fats will cross membrane easily and they can be bound to transport molecules in extracellular fluid, intra fluid, protein, etc.
Fick's Law of Diffustion
Measures the rate of diffusion. Know the equation.
Active Transport
Ion will use ATP to change carrier affinity movement from low concentration to high. It creates an ion gradient across membrane.
Na-K ATPase
Sodium that pumps sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell. It stores energy in the sodium and potassium gradients.
Secondary Active Transport
It's basic function is that it uses carrier molecules to exchange things. the carrier moves sodium into the cell and cotransports sugar or a.a.
Resting Membrane Potential
Occurs when there is no electrical signal produced. Constant membrane potential is determined by sodium and potassium.
Channels open for an ion and then there are more K channels at rest than Na. So more K will cross the membrane than Na.
Potassium Diffusion at Rest
Potassium leaves teh cells and the interior becomes negative.
Graded Potentials
Gradient potentials such as agonist,chemical, physical, temperature. Action potentials such as voltage all trigger GP. They work when you open a channel and the ions will cross.
GP will decay fast over time and distance to only produce a short range signal within the cell. You must have GP which produces an electrical signal to produce AP's.
Occurs b/c the axoxns have multiple endings and one cell influences another. They send signals to many other neurons.
Phases of AP: Depolarization to Threshold
agonist or physical change will open a sodium channel and sodium will enter to become positive.
Phases of AP: AP Spike
All v-gated channels see threshold and voltages open together. There is a rapid increase in sodium enrty and a rapid depolarization.
Phases of AP: Repolarization
V-gated Na channels colse in 1-2 milliseconds. K channels open and leave the cell to become negative.
Phases of AP: Hyperpolarization
Extra K channels open. -90
Phases of AP: Return to Resting Potential
Extra K channels close and return to resting potential.
Recieve neurotransmitter (that binds to a receptor) from another neuron. Channels open for Na and produces a gradient potential to spread thru the body.
Produced by cells that wrap around axons and provide installation. Cells with no myelin the AP moves slower.
Depolarizing synapses are excitatory and they are mixing mP in a pos. direction. They only allow small amount of Na transport. They change mP by 1mV and one EPSP is not enough to reach threshold.
NT binds to and opens K and Cl channels. K leaves cell b/c high concentration on the inside or Cl will enter. mP will hyperpolarize or become more negative and is less likely to reach threshold.
Multiple synapses into one cell. It's related to spatial summation.
are local hormones that are released from one cell and have an effect on the cell next door which is a different cell type. The endothelium lines vasculature for relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
Hydrophilic Hormones
Water soluble are derived from a.a. or small peptides. They must bind to membrane receptors and they activate 2nd messengers.
Hydrophobic Hormones
Not water soluble and are bound to protein in your plasma. They diffuse into cells and have effects in the nucleus where they increase protein synthesis and have many side effects.
Second Messengers
Produced by hydrophilic hormones and they bind to membrane receptors. This activates an enzyme which produces an intracellular product a 2nd messenger.
cAMP-Cyclic AmP
It activates kinesis that adds phosphate to molecules.
G Proteins
connect a receptor to an enzyme. They bind GTP and the system is active until GTP is converted to GDP then it's not active. Elements are involved in vision, growth, and vesicle movement.
Afferent Neurons
Carry AP's to the spinal cord and brain. Info is concious and unconsious.
Efferent Neurons
carry AP's out of the CNS.
Parasymp controls day to day homeostasis.
Symp. plays role in emergencies.
in the CNS and they compose more than 99% of all neurons. Thinking. emotions, memory, etc.
Glial Cells
Are the support cells in the CNS. They are capable of mitosis so they carry out cell division. They do have some cancer potential.
Is how learning occurs b/c you make new synapses by extending both dendrites and axons. Make new ones when you use that part of your brain.
edits and directs sensory input to the cortex. It recieves sensory input from the opposite side of the body. 98% info coming to thalamus dies there. In a type of autism the thalamus doesn't edit properly and too much info gets through.
Limbic System
A ring of structures underneath the cortec that controls emotions and is involved in memory formation. The hippocampus is one of these structures.
ST Memory
Can last from seconds to hours. Alter the activity of existing synapses and it can be erased and replaced with new STM.
LT Memory
The creation of new synapses in the cortex in temporal and fronal lobes. Multiple copies of important memories you retain youthful memories as you age but they are modified. To make new ones you must transfer memory from hippocampus to cortex.
Working Memory
In the frontal lobe. It aquires both STN and compares it to LTM. The new is compared with the old. It allows you to determine relevence of new data and organize priorities.
Structure on top of the brainstem that controls cooridinated movements and learned movements.
Cerebellum is connected to motor cortex in frontal lobe. Cerebellum recieves motor plan and afferent input of current muscle position. Coordination happens during movement. Practice reduces the need for cortical motor plan.
Slow Wave Sleep
there are 4 stages that get deeper. It is conscious thought but there are no true dreams. 75 mins. per cycle. Circadian rythms increase adenosine for sleep.
REM or Paradoxical Sleep
When you are most likely to awaken. It's the hardest stage to be awakened by someone else. High activity in visual cortex and low in frontal cortex.
Stretch Reflex
Afferent synapses with Efferent. Monosynaptic knee jerk-no CNS input and used to judge spinal cord health. The fasted reflex.
Receptor Potentials
all receptor cells are short with only RP. Long cells RP leads to an AP.
there is a decrease in the number of AP's despite a prolonged stimulus.
Phasic Receptors
Adapt over time and the rate is variable. Many have an off response. Touch is very fast.
Tonic Receptors
Do not adapt Most are your trunk muscles for posture.
Fast Pain
sharp, localized and passes quickely. Uses myelinated neuron and glutimate as NT.
Slow Pain
Diffuse, dull, and long lasting. Unmyelinated fibers.
the head pentapeptide.
the periphery or a larger peptide with enkalphalin sequence. Half life of 25 seconds. morphone 1/2 life is hours.
Olfactory Adaptation
Receptors for sense of smell are tonic and adaptations is in the CNS. The brain can control what you detect. Adapt to one smell does not affect other smells. Signal goes to cortex in limbic.
Receptors at the top of the nasal cavity. THere are more than 1000 distinct smell receptors.
Lens and the Ciliary Body
Lens refracts or bends light and allows it to focus on the retina.
C.B. has smooth muscle that changes the thickness of the lens and changes focal point.
Has multiple layers where light passes throught the ganglion cells and bipolar cells to photoreceptors. Rovea is the best vision and g. cells and b. cells are pulled aside for a high concentrations of cones.
Rods pick up shades of gray and cones pick up color. Both produce receptor potential with no AP. Sends NT to bipolar cells.
Bipolar Cells
Produce generator potentials and will synapse with ganglion cells. They produce an edge effect.
Ganglion Cells
Fire AP's if they reach threshold. the AP leaves the eye on the ganglion cell axon.
A visual pigment in rods and a combination of opsin an enzyme and retinine a Vit. A derivative. Light hits retinine and increase in opsin activiey leads to the release of NT. Vision recylcles 14x/sec.
Ear bones
Stapes-Stirrup-vibrates oval window.
all vibrate on one another.
Basilar Membrane
Is flexible and vibrates to sound waves. It changes in shape and thickness. Short to wide to detect high or low frequency. 20-20,000 Hz.
Hair cells
Sit on the basilar membrane and more with it. Layers of hair cells are immeded in the TM.
Tectorial Membrane
Very stiff with little or no vibration to sound wave.
Conductive Deafness
Sound waves didn't reach the hair cells. There is wax, eardrum, or earbone damage. Treated with a hearing aid to amplify sound.
Nerve Deafness
Damage to hair cells or the auditory nerve. Occurs b/c of a birth defect or very loud sounds.
Rotational Acceleration
3 Semicircular canals oriented at right angels to each other.
Semicircular Canals
Are fluid filld copula wth hair of hair cells imbedded. They rotate and the capula lags behind in movement to pulls on hair cells which leads to a receptor potential and to cells.
Fight-or-Flight Response
Try to remove danger and increase blood flow to skeletal muscles and heart. there is concurrent activation of mother units and a decrease in digestive activity.
Parasympathetic Responses
Decrease HR.
Increase GI contrations and secretion and pancreatic secretions.
Contract body of bladder and relax internal anal and urinary sphincters.
Connects alpha motor neuron to muscle cell. There's a very long synapse with lots of NT release.
Endplate Potential
Produced by sodium entry and movew MP from -85nv to -70mv
Activates boltage and gated Na channels lead to AP.
Digests Ach. Stops muscle activation to get relaxation.
Thin Filaments
Made up of 3 separate proteins. Backbone is made of actin with tropomyosin running along it.
Thick Filaments
Made up of myosin where the head binds to actin and has to have areversal of polarity in the middle.
Invaginations of the fiber membrane carry AP deep into the fiber.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
connected to T-tubules by a voltage sensitive protein. It will release Calcium when protein is v-activated.
Troponin-Calcium Binding
Calcium leaves and binds to troponin which is attached to tropomyosin. Calcium is bound to tropomyosin.
Tropomyosin Shift
Moves tropomyosin into actin groove and ublocks actin-myosin binding site.
Length-Tension Relation
Falloff at long and short lengths
Force varies with length
Long-reduce filament overlad so less actin-myosin contract.Short-Thick hit he z-lin, thin-thin overlap decreases a-m contact, and decreased Ca release on short end.
Power Curve
Power=Force x Velocity As a muscle is lengthened it resists lengthening up to 1.5 Fo. Injury happens when muscles simultaneously contract, so when a contracting muscle shortens and pulls paired muscle also contracting stretch muscle injury.
Muscle Energy Use: Phosphocreatine-Pcr
Is limited and buffer ATP concentration for about 20 secs.
Muscle Energy Use: Glycolysis
10 reactions-2 mins. of high energy output.
Muscle Energy Use: Oxidative Phosphorylation
requires the citric acid cycle and teh ETS using glycogen stored in muscles for 2 hrs. of good energy use.
fibers get biger but there are no new fibers. Produces microdamage from high intensity high force exercise.
Intrafusal Fibers
Each fiber has a sensory section that's in the central part of the cell and contractile sections at the ends. They detect length changes.
Gamma motor fibers
neuron goes through to activate contractile sections of the intrafusal fibers. This keeps the IF taught when the muscle shortens.
Dense Bodies
Both in the interior and on the membrane. They are sites of thin filament attachment to dense bodies.
Myosin Light Chain Kinase
added a phosphate MLC are small protein attached to a head. MLCK adds phosphate to the MLC. whin MLC is phosphorilated this activates the myosin ATPase which activates the actin to produce force.
Visceral (single unit) SM
connected by gap jutions or channels b/w cells that allow ions to pall they have electrial activation. When one AP occurs it spreads thruout the tissue.
Multi-Unit SM
No gap junctions and every cell is independent of every other cell. Present in the blood vessels and have a greater variation of force.
Intercalated Disks
are connections b/w the cardiac cells. Many desmosomes that keep cell together and many gap junctioins that help spread electrical activation. Make sure the heart stays together.
SA Node
is in the Right Atrium and is autorythmic it will depolarize the threshold with no stimulu. there is no stable mP.
Pacemaker Cells
Autorythmic cells that have no stable base line potential. These cells include the SA node AV node Bundle of His and Purkinji Fibers.
Depolarization in Cardiac
Close K channel and open Ca channels and at threhold open many v-gated channels.
Sum of all the AP's in the heart. Electrical leads detect the electrical signal at diff. times.
P wave
QRS complex
T wave
Atrial depolarization
Ventricular depolarization masking atrial repolarization.
Ventricular repolarization.`
when the heart is relaxed Time for blood filling and the end volume is 130ml
Atrial Systole
atria contract first and they complete the filling of ventricles. 70-80% v-filling is passive/20-30 is due to atrial contraction.
Ventricular Systole
is the pumping part that folows the atrial systole and the contractoin spreads upwards.
Pressure in left vent. must be higher than the pressure in the aorta in order to open the aortic valve.
Neural Influences
Parasympathetic and Sympathetic
bothe the SV and the HR changes.
P: decrease HR
S: increase HR
Vessel Radius
Most important variable
Resistance is 1/radiues^4
Constrict vessel-decrease radius
Dialate vessel-increase radius
thickness of blood
Hematocrit in males-45% and females is 42% The higher the hematocrit the thicker the blood.
Arteriolar Flow
blood vessels. Arteriols branch off arteries. When blood enter arterioles it has pressure of 93mmHg. and when it leaves its 32mmHg.
VSM contraction with no stimulus. Has partial conraction-vessels can dialate or constrict from this point.
Perfusion Control
Arterioles are the site of perfusion control. Sympathetic neuronn, metabolites, paracrines, hormones all control this.
Radius can go either direction.
the movement of fluid out of the capillary that occurs b/c BP is greater that osmotic pressure and happens at the arteriolar end of the capillary.
The movement of fluid into the capillary. BP is less than osmotic pressure at venule end of capillary. It produces a continual washing and fluid exchange around the capillary.
Lymph Flow
there is always some excess filtered fluid returned to the blood by the lymph system.
swelling b/c of excess filtration-protein cause decrease in inward force for excess fluid. caused by physical trauma, sprained ankle cause blood vessels to rupture. Low blood protein during starvations
and bacteria produce protein to draw fluid and block lymph flow-fatal. From bad water.
Metabolic Vasodilators
Active tissues produce vasodialators to open blood vessels and increase flow. Active hyperemia increase blood flow that occurs in active tissue.
Endothelial Factor
Endothelium induces paracrines which can affect the vascular smooth muscle
detect changes in BP and stretch receptors are on the aortic arch and cartine sinus.
Control of V-constriction/Dialation
increase BP, decreases HR does vasoconstriction, decrease in BP does vasodialation
Extrinsic System
takes 8-20 mins.
ingest bacteria and dead cells
designed for rapid response. they circulate in your bloodstream and squeeze thru. move from blood by diapodesis and thru pores of capillaries to attack bacteria.
migrate tissues by diapedesis
during mass infection many monocytes migrate and there you produce macrophages.
liv in tissues and awaite bacteria.
pus remains
Function is similar to most cells in connective tissue. They produce histamine which causes inflammation by increase in blood flow. Causes edema
increase sodium excretion by the kidneys and cause lower blood volume and decrease blood pressure
ACE Inhibitors
block AII production, cause less constriction, less sodium retension, decrease BP, there are low side effects but could cause birth defects if taken during prenancy.
Plasma Proteins
Albumins-highest amount, reabsorb at capillaries, transport hydophhobics
Globulins-many subgroups, and fibrinogen-blood clot function.
Shape of RBC's
a biconcave disk with spectrin net to maintain shape.Squeeze through for transport. increase surface area and gas exchange rate. oxygen exchange is easy.
major component has 4 protein chains and carries 4 oxygen molecules. each has i heme group with iron at center.
Adult Hemoglobin
has 2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains, have coopertivity b/w the subunits that meant 1 subunit to bind to oxygen then the other bind easier.
are pinched off pieces of megokaryocytes
activation of platelets
collagen in connective tissue will bind to plateltes and they release ADP for more platelet binding.
Intrinsic System
in plasma takes 4-8 minutes. collagen activated when blood vessels are damaged.
Extrinsic System
takes 8-20 minutes, activated by damaged tissues, releases thromboplastin to merge with intrinsic system.
Complement System
the major bacteria killer a series of 9 plasma factors c1-c0.
Activation of the complement system
by antibodies on the bacteria surface or by the opsonin properdin.
Pore formation
by complement system occurs b/ c5-c9 form pores in teh membrane. this is very local and there's rapid inactivation.
antibodies are type of opsonin, chemical labels that bind to bacteria and foreign cells. They label the cells for attact by phagocytes and the CS.
increases blood flow causing dialation of arterioles. Increase delivery of oxygen, glucose, and a.a. Increase in capillary permeability dur to increase in pore size caused by histamine. makes diapodesis easier. increase infiltration.
B Lymphocytes
bind antigen for full activation requires T helper cells to contract. When antigen binds to b-cell the b-cell is now activated. it will undergo mitosis producing plasma in cells these are b-cell clones.
Plasma Cells
are loaded with endoplasmic reticulum. they are antibody factors and secrete antibodies to antigen. They only produce antibodies.
Memory Cells
both b and t cells have few memory cells that last for years. they are the basis for immunization.
Antibody Functions
Major-activation of the compliment system; macrophage activation; NK cells.
Minor-aglutination; neutrilization by binding
Cytotoxic T cells
bind to cell with foreign and self-antigen, inject perforin into cell membrane.
Helper T cells
most t cells, release cytokines to activate both b and t cells. theres a large increase in the activation of the immune system.
human leukocyte associate antigen- self antigens
an immune response to a harmless substance. Stimulants are called allergens that produce a secondary response.
Immediate Hypersensitivity
response to allergen occurs within 20 minutes. B-cell mediated antibodies.
Anaphylaptic Shock
the allergens will spread to the blood and decrease in blood pressure occurs due to excess capillary permeability. Treatment is epinephrine
epithelial cells on it, dead cells on outer side, line underneath. There is no blood supply, requires diffusion from dermis to stay alive. Has alot of desmosomes and kerotine.
Underlying layer is mostly connective tissue under the epidermis. blood regulate heat loss as does sweat increases heat loss. Subacious glands produce oil which waterproof the skin and hair follicles increase tough sensitivity.
Atmospheric, Intra-alveolar, Intrapleural Pressures
A: at sea level 760
IA: exhale 1-2 above A
inhale 1-2 below A
IP: area b/w lungs and thoracic wall. always 4 below A. This keeps your lungs inflated.
Boyle's Law
P x V= constant
increase Volume= decrease Pressure and vice versa
Alveolar Surface Tension
Produces a surface of water on the inside of alveoli which are broken to inflate alveoli.
breaks hydrogen bonds b/w water. Eases the inflation of alveoli.
In the 36th week of gestation premature get respirators and glucorticoids which increase the rate of lung maturation which cause rapid surfactant production.
Anatomical Dead Space
normal tidal volume is 500L. The area from your mouth down to the brochials where there is no age exchange 150ml.
Shallow- 0 air entering
Oxygen Transport
1.5% is dissolved in arterial blood. 98.5% is bound to hemoglobin.
Oxygen Hemoglobin Binding
is sigmoidal b/c of coopertivity in oxygen binding b/q hemoglobin subunits.
Carbon Monoxide
it binds hemoglobin 200 times stronger than oxygen and it shifts the Hb-O2 curve to the left.
Carbon Dioxide Transport
10 percent is dissolved 30 is bound to globin portion of Hb. and 60 is transported by carbonate.
Medullary Control Centers
DRG rythmic exchange
VRG increase inspiration and expiration to modify breathing
punctured lung or ruptured thorax
lung on ruptured side collapses and decreased blood flow to inflated side.
Danger from kinked large veins/seal rupture lung will re-flate.
most common causes are cigarette smoke in lungs and coal/tar
the functional unit of the kidney has the vascular and tubular systems.
Everything can be filtered except for cells and protein.
most material is reabosorbed but remainder that is not reabsorbed becomes urine.
Vascular System
has 2 capillary beds for filtration glomerulus and reabsorption. the afterent arteriole carries blood into glomerulus, blood goes into the efferent arteriole the into peritubular caps. then veins then back into the blood.
Tubular System
is s shaped and goes from cortex to medulle.
Tubular Reabsorption
must recover filtrate. you produce 125 ml. and reabsorb 124 and in urine 1 ml/min.
Na reabsorption
controls reabsorption of a lot of substances. Pump is only on basolateral side of tubular cells. tight juctions prevent movement b/w tubular cells
Glucose Reabsoption
co transported with Na into tubular cells. Separate glucose only transporter from tubular cell into interstitial fluid.
Renin-Angiotensin System
maintains BP by increasing sodium and water reabsorption. stimulated by decrease in BP and causes the release of renin from the kidney.
Production of AII
AI is digested to produce AII by ACE which is present in you lungs.
Effects of AII
It will increase thirst and the release of basopresin from pituitary gland. this increases water retention.
Causes the release of aldosterone from adrenal gland.
Tubular Secretion
there is movement of material from capillaries into the tubules. This involves extra removal from plasma. organic acids and bases are removed.
H+ Secretion
Kidneys are the major removers of hydrogen from the body.
Loop of Henle
creates the osmotic gradient from the cortex9low osmo) to the medulla (high osmo).
hormone in posterior pituitary. When increase plasma osmolarity you will release vasopressin from the pituitary. It causes the insertion of Aquaporins into the tubular cell membranes of the collecting ducts.
are water channels, water goes through aquaporins and goes to wherever there is most stuff so least water. water moves out o f filtrate and into interstitial fluid.
Aldosterone Effects
a steriod hormone in adrenal cortex. release is caused by AII. It increases synthesis of sodium pumps on basolateral side of the tubular cells in collecting duct in the distal tubule.
increase in Na absorption, water follows sodium and you must have this to survive.
Control of Micturition
urination, increase in bladder pressure you produce a spinal reflex which causes relaxation of the internal sphincter, this causes increase pressure receptor activity in urethra.
voluntary control of external urinary sphincter
pelvic floor muscle will descend
these should be exercised after birth to maintain tone.
Salt Intake and Excretion
Intake: about 10.5g/day and .5 for sweat
.5 for urin volume
Exctrete: kidneys are good at exerting Na excretion. Chloride will follow. fitness decreases Na content of sweat.
ECF osmolarity control
control of the plasma and IF osmolarity: amount of dissolved material. There must be a balance of ICT and IT osmo to prevent shrinkage or swelling of the cells.
Na and K dominateosmo of IF and ICF. Proteins are non penetrating to produce an osmotic force.
measure of tonicity is determined by your cells. Hypertonic causes shrinkage. Hypotonic causes swelling.
acidosis effects
Decreases neural activity especially in CNS. It is a brain depressent. it decreases enzyme activity.
control of H+
buffer, respiratory system (how heavily you breathe), renal system
Buffers will bind H+, com in acid or base and becomes AH or BH+. one hydrogen is bound to something its not free in fluid anymore and no longer in solution and not contributing to high ion concentration.
Respiratory Control of H+
Kidney Control of H+
Increase hydrogn, increase death and frequency of respiration, remove carbon dioxide.
Removes hydrogen from any non-renal source.
Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis
Acid-non- respiratory, most common, caused by severe diarhea, loss of bicarbonate
Alka=Decrease in hydrogen for non-resp. reasons, vomitting loss of hydrogen in vomittes, excess bicarbonate.
Amylase splits starch into dissacharides in small intestine you have dissacharides and produce monosaccarides which are absorbable.
enzymes that do the digestion are released in protected form. in stomach acid then pepsin in S.I. enterokinase on walls convers trypsinogen into trypsin which activates other proteases.
Proteases convert protein into peptides. Peptidases on S.I. walls convert peptides into a.a.. These are absorbable.
convert triglycerides to monoglycerides and free fatty acids.
combinations of bile salts from the liver and fats. They will migrate to the mucosale cell membranes.
Fat soluble-A,D,E, and K enter the body thru the lymph and are stored in adipose tissue. don't need daily.
Water Soluble are excreted daily so you need to take them daily. travel by the portal vein. B and C.
a burst of AP's when reach threshold. AP's produce a contraction in the GI tract.
near the end of digestion-increase osmolarity chyme at end of meal squeezes unabsorbed content to the L.I. cleans out S.I so it's ready for the next meal.