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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
when 2 or more organisms use the same resource(s) that is in short supply, such that each organism has a negative effect on the other
intraspecific competition
within a species
interspecific competition
between two species
exploitative competition
scramble - individuals use the same resources but don't come in contact
contest - direct contact between individuals competing for the same resource
moving to a different area from where one was born
niche overlap
predicts the potential for competition
niche according to Hutchinson
an n-dimensional hypervolume
an ecological role or function of an organism in a community, the total use of all the biotic and abiotic resources
fundamental niche
the entire set of conditions in which organisms can survive and reproduce
realized niche
the portion of the fundamental niche that is occupied by individuals after interactions are considered
niche breadth
width along one dimension
competitive exclusion principle
complete competitors cannot coexist
niche partitioning
use slightly different niches or resource utilization to keep from competing
niche shifts
may shift their realized niche in response to the presence of other species, aka competitive release
character displacement
have different morphologies depending on their competitors
limiting similarity
a regular seperation of body size in similar species, often associated with food type
1.3 rule
by looking at the size series of 12 different groups of species, Hutchinson found that they were seperated on average by a ratio of 1.3
ghost of competiton past
we don't know what happened in the past but we suggest competition
interaction in which one individual does better while the other individual does worse
when one organism obtains nutrients by killing another
intraguild predation
eating a competitor
search predators
finding prey is hard, catching is easy
pursuit predators
finding prey is easy, catching is not
numerical responses
a population-level response to prey
functional responses
a individual-level response to prey
when predators change their food preferences depending on which foods are common or rare
optimal foraging
organsims should be economical and maximize benefits and minimize costs
live outside hosts, obtain nutrients by sucking fluid
live inside hoss, usually more specialized
live within hosts cells
live in or on the host, release infective stages outside the hosts body
brood parasites
lay eggs in a conspecific or heterospecific nest to trick the adults into rearing the parasites offspring with their own
parasites which reach maturity by killing the host in the process, part para and part pred.
transfer of the parasite from one host to the next
indirect transmission
transfer from one primary host to another via intermediate or secondary host.
direct transmission
no secondary host
parasite prevalence
the proportion of a host population infected with a parasite
parasite intensity
the number of parasites on a particular host