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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe 3 key functions of a change control board
1.Influence the factors that create changes to ensure they are beneficial
2.Determine that a change has occurred
3.Manage actual changes when and as they occur
The critical chain method claims to provide great improvement over CPA. Explain 3 key advantage over CPA
1. Staffs have a single priority
2. Buffers help to protect the due date.
3. Relying on buffers to absorb most of the normal, expected variability in the execution of tasks and projects.
Develop Project Charter: Inputs
2. Statement of Work –
3.Enterprise environment factors
4. Organizational process assets –
Develop Project Charter: Process
1.Select a project
2.Strategic alignment
3.Identify and apply a project management methodology
Develop Project Charter: Initiation Process
1. look at the big picture or strategic plan of an organization

2. Strategic planning involves determining long-term business objectives

3.IT projects should support strategic and financial business objectives
Develop Project Charter: Project Selection Process
1. Develop an IT strategic plan based on the organization’s overall strategic plan
2. Perform a business area analysis
3. Define potential projects
4. Select IT projects and assign resources
Develop Preliminary Scope Statement: Inputs
1.project objectives
2.products and services requirements
3.project boundaries assumptions
5.Project charter
6.Statement of work
7.Enterprise environmental factors
Organizational process assets
Develop Preliminary Scope Statement: Process
1.Define your project management methodology that will support the team in developing the project scope.

2.Obtain input from project stakeholders.
Develop Preliminary Scope Statement: Output
Project scope defines the project deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables.

1.project justification 2.product characteristics 3.summary of deliverables 4.project success criteria
Develop Project Management Plan
Take results of other planning processes (e.g., test plan, quality plan, risk management plan) and putting them into a consistent, coherent document—project plan
Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs
1.Preliminary project scope statement
2.Enterprise environmental factors
3.Organizational process assets
Develop Project Management Plan: Process
Document project management methodology, tools, and techniques that will be applied for this project.
Develop Project Management Plan: Purpose
It defines how the project will be executed, monitored, controlled, and closed

3.techniques to be applied how work will be accomplished
4.changes controlled
5.key management reviews
Direct and Manage Project Execution: Inputs
Carry out the activities described in the project management plan.

Project management plan

Approved change request (this includes corrective actions, preventive actions, and repairs)
Direct and Manage Project Execution:Process
Manage project in accordance with PM plan

Collect project data on project performance.
Direct and Manage Project Execution: Output
Deliverables as defined by the project.

Implemented change requests.

Work performance information
of cost
schedule performance
quality of products
analysis of corrective action and repair requests
Project Plan Execution
managing and performing the work described in the project plan

The majority of time and money is usually spent on execution
Direct and Manage Project Execution and Monitor/Control Project Work
The team should continuously monitor project performance to assess the overall health of the project and identify areas of concern.
Direct and Manage Project Execution
Monitor and Control Project Work
(Input, Process, Output)
1.Inputs: Project management plan
2.Work performance information
3.Rejected change requests
4.Evaluate work performance information to adjust project activities as necessary.
5.Output: Requested changes
Integrated Change Control
1.Involves identifying, evaluating, and managing changes throughout the project lifecycle.
2.Project management plan
3.Requested changes
4.Work performance information
Integrated Change Control: Process
Identify the need for a change and review proposed changes.

Manage the change management process

Update project management documents and product deliverables as necessary
Integrated Change Control: Output
1.Approved and rejected change requests
2.Project management plan (updates)
3.Project scope statement (updates)
Integrated Change Control: 3 main objectives of change control
1.Influence the factors that create changes to ensure they are beneficial
2.Determine that a change has occurred
3.Manage actual changes when and as they occur
Integrated Change Control: Close Project
Finalize all activities and transfer the products and supporting project information to the appropriate people in the organization.

Project management plan
Contract documentation
Enterprise environmental factors
Organizational process assets
Work performance information
Describe the key processes of Scope Management:
Refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them. It defines what is or is not to be done
Scope Planning Process
Create a project scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, verified, controlled, how WBS will be created and defined;

Scoping activities are determined by a project’s size, complexity, and importance.
Scope Definition Process: Input
Organizational process assets

Project charter

Preliminary project scope statement

Project scope management plan

Approved change requests.
Scope Definition Process: Output
Project Scope Statement

Requested Changes Requested changes are processed for review and disposition through the Integrated Change Control process.
Create a WBS
Decompose the approved work scope into work packages that can be assigned, estimated and managed.

WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project. It represents the work stated in the project scope statement.
Create a WBS: Output
Project Scope Statement Updates

Work Breakdown Structure

Project Scope Management Plan Updates

Requested Changes Requested changes to the project scope statement and its components.

WBS Dictionary Describe the detailed content of the elements
Scope Verification Process
the process of formalizing acceptance of the project scope by the stakeholders.
(using inspections, product reviews, audits, walkthroughs).

Covers not only the final deliverables, but also interim deliverables and work results.

Scope verification differs from quality control in that it is primarily concerned with acceptance of the work results, while quality control is primarily concerned with the correctness of the work results.

Both processes are generally performed in parallel to ensure both acceptance and correctness.

Many IT projects suffer from scope creep and poor scope verification
Scope Verification Process:
Accepted Deliverables The Scope Verification process documents those completed and accepted deliverables. Those completed and not accepted deliverables are documented, along with the reasons for no acceptance.

Requested Changes Requested changes may be generated from the S Verification process, and are processed for review and approval through the Integrated Change Control process.

Recommended Corrective Actions Corrective actions are recommendations required to bring expected future project performance into conformance with the project plan.
Scope Control Process
assures all requested changes and recommended corrective actions are processed through the project Integrated Change Control process.

Scope control is concerned with:
Influencing the factors, which create scope change to ensure that changes are beneficial

Managing the actual changes when and where they occur.
3 concerns:

Scope grope: the project team’s inability to define the project scope.
Scope creep: increasing featurism of the project

Scope leap: a fundamental and significant change in the project scope.
Scope Control Process: output
Project Scope Statement(Updates)
Work Breakdown Structure (Updates)
Requested Changes Recommended Corrective Actions

Project Scope Management Plan (Updates) If the approved change requests have an effect on the project scope, then the corresponding component documents and cost baseline, and schedule baselines of the project management plan, are revised and reissued
Time Management: Activity definition
1.Enterprise environmental factors
2.Organizational process assets
3.Scope statement
5.WBS dictionary
6.Project management plan
Time Management: Activity definition(Output)
1.Activity list
2.Activity attributes
3.Milestone list (both mandatory and optional milestones)
4.Requested changes
Time Management: Activity Sequencing
Involves reviewing activities (or tasks) and determining dependencies (some activities are dependent on other activities being completed first.)
Time Management: Activity Sequencing (4 types of dependencies:)
(1)Mandatory Dependencies
(2)Discretionary Dependencies
(3)External Dependencies
(4)Resource Dependencies
Describe the key processes of Time Management:
Activity Sequencing
Activity Resource Estimating
Determine what resources (persons, equipment, or material) and what quantities of each resource will be used, and when each resource will be available to perform the project activities.

This process is closely coordinated with the Cost Estimating process.
Time Management: Allow time for.
1. Other high urgency tasks to be carried out which have priority over the current task.
2.Accidents and emergencies
4.Holidays and sickness in essential staff
5.Break downs in equipment
6.Let downs from suppliers
8.Quality control rejections
Describe the key processes of Cost Management: cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control.
Project Cost Management Processes
Primarily concerned with the cost of the resources needed to complete the scheduled activities
1.Cost estimating: developing an estimate of the costs and resources needed to complete a project
2. Cost budgeting: allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items to establish a baseline for measuring performance
3.Cost control: controlling changes to the project budget
HR planning
HR planning involves identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships, and creating the staffing management plan
HR planning: Output
1.Roles and responsibilities
2.Project organizational charts
3.Staffing management plan
Human Resource Management:
Acquire Project Team
Projects are temporary, which means that personnel and organizational relationships will be temporary, and often new.

getting the human resources needed assigned to the project.

Staffing plans and good hiring procedures are important in staff acquisition, as are incentives for recruiting and retention

Some HR administrative activities will probably not be the direct responsibilities of the project manager, but he should be familiar with.

Project management may or may not have control over team members selected for the project.
Human Resource Management: Acquire Project Team
Resource availability
Documents the time periods each project team member can work on the project.

Project staff assigned
Staff may be assigned full time, part time, or based on the needs of the project.

Updated staffing management plan
Human Resource Management:
Develop Project Team
involves developing
individual and group competencies and improving the interaction of team members to enhance project performance.

1.Improve skills of team members in order to increase their ability to complete project activities
2.Improve feelings of trust and cohesiveness among team members to raise productivity through greater teamwork.
It takes teamwork to successfully achieve project goals.
Human Resource Management:
Manage Project Team
1.Tracking team member performance
2.Providing feedback
3.Resolving issues
4.Coordinating changes to enhance project performance
Human Resource Management: Manage Project Team
1.The staff management plan is updated
2.Change requests are submitted
3.Issues are resolved
4.Input is given to organizational performance appraisals
5.Lessons learned are added to the organization’s database
Communication Planning
Every project should include some type of communications management plan – a document that guides project communication.

Need to do communication requirement analysis: identify information needs of the project stakeholders.

Communications should contain the necessary information, but no more.

Don’t waste other’s time.
Communication Management: Plan Contents
A description of a collection and filing structure for gathering and storing various types of information.

A distribution structure describing what information goes to whom, when, and how

A format for communicating key project information(template)

A method for updating the communication management plans as the project progresses and develops.
Developing a Communication Plan
1.Determine project stakeholders.
2.Determine the communication needs for stakeholder
3.For each
stakeholder/objective.. how to fulfill the communication need.
4.Determine the effort required to create and distribute each of the identified communication 2. 5.Prioritize the communication options 6.implement any communication options that are mandatory for the project
7.Add the resulting communication activities to the work plan
Developing a Communication Plan: 3 general types of information
Developing a Communication Plan: All stakeholders need an updated project status
The Steering Committee may need to get together for an executive briefing and to provide strategic direction every other month.

The Project Sponsor may need a personal briefing on a monthly basis.

The entire customer organization may need a quarterly newsletter for informational and marketing purposes.
Communication Management:
Information Distribution
Getting the right information to the right people at the right time and in a useful format

Implement the communication management plan and responding to unexpected requests for information.

Important considerations include
1.Using technology to enhance information distribution
2.Using formal and informal methods for distributing information
Communication Management:
Performance Reporting
Performance reporting keeps stakeholders informed about how resources are being used.

Also provide information on scope, schedule, cost and quality.

Some projects also require information on risk and procurement
Communication Management:
Performance Reporting
1.Status report describes where the project stands at a specific point in time (It does not necessarily imply a written report. The status can be communicated via email, videoconference or other collaborative tools.)
2.Progress report describes what the project team has accomplished during a certain period of time
3.Project forecasting predicts future project status and progress based on past information and trends
4.Status review meetings include status reporting.
Communication Management:
Manage Stakeholder
Managing communications to satisfy the needs of, and resolve issues with, project stakeholders.

Actively managing stakeholders increases the chance of project success.
Communication Management:
Manage Stakeholder
1.Face-to-face meetings with stakeholder are the most effective.
2.Issue logs: used to document and monitor the resolution of issues. 3.Unresolved issues can be a major source of conflict and project delays.
Do a stakeholder analysis
For each stakeholder, find out
1.What is their interest (communication needs)?
2.How best to give them those information.
Do a stakeholder analysis
A stakeholder analysis documents important (often sensitive) information about stakeholders such as
3.Stakeholders’ names and organizations
4.Roles on the project
5.Unique facts about stakeholders
6.Level of influence and interest in the project
7.Suggestions for managing relationships
Do a stakeholder analysis
Use the results of analysis to manage the relationship with the stakeholders
Know the common risk items of a project
Schedule overruns, requirement creeps, quality problems, complexity, size, resources, development environment, staff lack of experience

Management commitment.

Project management expertise.

Resource capability and availability.

Cost variations (over/under).

Supplier relationships.

Inadequate planning for transition and implementation.

Inadequate training of staff in the new technology or system.
Know the different risk mitigation strategies
1.Contingency plans
2.Fallback plans
3.Contingency reserves or allowances
Know the different risk mitigation strategies
Contingency plans

Fallback plans

Contingency reserves or allowances

Know the content of a risk management plan
Know the skills required of a project manager
need a wide variety of skills

They should be comfortable with change, understand the organizations they work in and with, and be able to lead teams to accomplish project goals.

Project managers need both “hard” and “soft” skills.
Communication skills:
Organizational skills:
Team Building skills:
Leadership skills:
Coping skills:
Technological skills:
Describe the negotiation techniques
Personal insults
Good guy/bad guy
Limited authority
Missing man
Fair and reasonable
Extreme demands
A done deal
Describe the negotiation techniques
§ Attacks
§ Personal insults
§ Good guy/bad guy
§ Deadline
§ Lying
§ Limited authority
§ Missing man
§ Fair and reasonable
§ Delay
§ Extreme demands
§ Withdrawal
§ A done deal
Understand the different types of contracts
(A contract)
1.Fixed price
2.Cost reimbursable.
3.Time and material (T&M)
Understand the different types of contracts
(Unit price contracts)
1.Cost plus incentive fee (CPIF) buyer pays seller for allowable performance costs plus a predetermined fee and an incentive bonus. Example: Contract = cost plus a fee of $100,000. For every month the project is completed sooner than agreed upon, seller receives an additional $10000.
2.Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF) buyer pays seller for allowable performance costs plus a fixed fee payment. Example: Contract = cost plus a fee of $100,000.
3.Cost plus percentage of costs (CPPC) buyer pays seller for allowable performance costs plus a predetermined percentage based on total costs. Example: Contract = cost plus 10% of costs as fee.
Understand the different types of contracts
: require the buyer to pay the seller a predetermined amount per unit of service (e.g., contract = $2000 per month of maintenance services)
1.Cost plus incentive fee (CPIF)
2.Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF)
3.Cost plus percentage of costs (CPPC)
Managing conflict
Approaches, in Preference Order
Running effective meetings
Determine if a meeting can be avoided.

Define the purpose and intended outcome of the meeting.

Determine who should attend the meeting.

Send out an agenda to participants before the meeting. Prepare handouts, visual aids, and make logistical arrangements ahead of time.

There should be a meeting facilitator. Make sure the participants are prepared for the meeting.

The meeting should start on time.

Follow the agenda, and watch the time, to make sure everything gets covered.

Someone (e.g., facilitator) should document any action items during the meeting.

Toward the end of the meeting, recap all outstanding action items, including who is

Responsible, what is expected, and when the action item is due.

Recap any decisions that were made, and document them in an email (or a project communication file).
Using e-mail effectively
Make sure that e-mail is an appropriate medium for what we want to communicate

Be sure to send the e-mail to the right people

Use meaningful subjects/titles

Limit the content to 1 main subject, and be clear and concise

Limit the number and size of attachments

Don’t open email if we question the source

Make sure our virus software is up to date

Respond to and file e-mails quickly
Using templates
Providing examples and templates for project communications saves time and money.

Organizations can develop their own templates, use some provided by outside organizations, or use samples from textbooks.

Research shows that companies that excel in project management make effective use of templates.
Know how to deal with conflict: Conflict can be minimized using the following techniques:
Informing the team of:
1.Exactly where the project is headed
2.Project goals and objectives
3.All key decisions

Clearly assigning tasks without ambiguity or overlapping responsibilities

Making work assignments interesting and challenging
Conflict: Resolving Conflict
Best resolved by those involved in the conflict.
The PM should generally try to resolve problems and conflict as long as he or she has authority over those in conflict or the issues in conflict.
Describe the change control board
A formal group of people responsible for approving or rejecting changes on a project

1.provide guidelines for preparing change requests,
2.evaluate change requests, and
3.manage the implementation of approved changes

includes stakeholders from the entire organization (Dev., QA, Marketing, Mgmt., Customer support)

Watch for bureaucracy
Describe MOV

Measurable Organizational Value (MOV)
1.Be measurable
2.Provide value to the organization
3.Be agreed upon
4.Be verifiable

An organization should not undertake projects that are not clearly linked to its overall mission!

We should align the MOV with the organizational strategy and goals.
Know the advantages and disadvantages of critical chain method
Project managers avoid unnecessary changes in priority by relying on buffers to absorb most of the normal, expected variability in the execution of tasks and projects.

Staff have a single priority -- the current task to which they are assigned. Without the distraction of pressures to multitask or to meet false priorities of task due dates, they can concentrate on the task at hand.

CC shifts focus from assuring the achievement of task estimates and intermediate milestones to assuring the only date that matters -- the final promised due date.

Buffers help to protect the due date.

They provide a clear indication of the health of the project.
Understand the estimation principles
(1) Estimating is an uncertain process
(2) Estimation as an Iterative Process
(3) Don’t give a specific estimate
(4) Use more than one method to derive the base estimates
(5) Ask for justification
(6) Select estimation experts with experience from similar projects
Know the definition of quality
1.Quality is Factual
2.Quality is Perceived

Customer is our final, most critical and most effective assessor
“If the customer is not happy, nobody is happy’
1. Conformance to requirements (stated needs)
2. Fitness for use (implied needs)

Quality is…Doing the Right Thing, Right, First Time, Every Time, Everybod
Understand ISO9001 and CMMI
Developed by the British Computer Society (BCS) in 1991.
Method of registering software development systems under ISO 9000.

Over 1400 certificates issued by 2003, half of new certificates are outside of the UK
CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration)

Integrate the many CMM models, eliminate inconsistencies and reduce duplication

Reduce the cost of implementing model-based process improvement

Assure consistency with ISO15504 (SPICE)

Focus on System Engineering, not Software Engineering

CMMI supports both staged and continuous model representation
Know the content of a quality management plan
1. Quality management plan
2. Quality metrics
3. Quality Checklists
4. Process improvement plan
5. Quality Baseline
Describe benchmarking
“The practice of being humble enough to admit that someone else is better at something – and being wise enough to learn how to match and even surpass them at it.”

Comparing actual or planned project practices to those of other projects

to generate ideas for improvement

to provide a standard by which to measure performance.
7 Basic Tools of quality:
1.Cause and effect graph
2.Control chart
5.Pareto chart
6.Run chart
7.Scatter diagram
Pareto rule
Called 80-20 rule, => 80% of problems are often due to 20% of the causes

Histograms, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that help identify and prioritize problem areas.

20% of the modules consume 80% of the resources

20% of the modules contribute 80% of the errors

20% of the errors consume 80% of repair costs

20% of the enhancements consume 80% of the adaptive maintenance costs

20% of the modules consume 80% of execution time

20% of the tools experience 80% of the tool usage

20% of the tools are used by 80% of the users
Know the different types of power
What is power?
The ability to influence others to do

What you want them to do

When you want them to do it

And in the manner you require
Know the different types of power
1.Penalty (coercive)
2.Legitimate (formal or authority)

10.Work challenge
Schedule Variance%
SV= Earned value– Planned Value:
Cost Variance %
CV$ = earned value – Actual Cost
Critical Path Analysis
Process of obtaining a critical path.

helps us to calcculate the minimum lenght of time in which the project can be completed and which activites should be prioritised.
Estimate at Completions
EAC = actual cost to date + estimated cost of work remaining
how much work SHOULD be done
PV Planned Value
how much work IS done?
EV Earned Value
how much did the COMPLETED work cost?
AC Actual Cost of Work Performed
What was the total Job SUPPOSED cost?
BAC Budget at Completion
What do we NOW EXPECT the total job to cost
EAC Estimate at Completion