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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
addition -
adding extra parts to a word
clarifying questions -
questions that invite another person to elaborate on his or her meaning
comparing questions -
questions that invite examination of similarities and differences
connotative meaning -
the personal associations people make for a symbol
constitutive rules -
rules to help sort out the meaning of words or phrases
cosmopolitan communicators -
communicators who acknowledge the existence of a number of different, valid meanings for words
denotative meaning -
the “dictionary” or objective meaning people give to a symbol
episode -
sequence of messages that has a clear beginning, an end, and a set of constitutive and regulative rules
ethnocentric communicators -
communicators who recognize only their own meanings for words as valid and reject alternative meanings as wrong
expressiveness -
skill of animating verbal and nonverbal communication
gender-as-culture hypothesis -
men and women are socialized into a masculine or feminine culture given their differential use of language
hate speech -
speech attacks on other people on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, or sexual orientation
hypothetical questions -
solicit responses to what-if situations
I-message -
statement that labels the speaker’s own behavior
indexing -
using language that places an issue, event, or person in a specific time or context
intensity -
the volume of the speaker’s voice
interpretive questions -
solicit a person’s subjective opinions and perspectives
Ladder of Abstraction -
S. I. Hayakawa’s description of language on a continuum from very concrete to the abstract
language -
rule-guided system of symbols that allows us to take messages and utterances in the form of words and translate them into meaning
language community -
group of people who have developed a common set of constitutive and regulative rules which guide the meaning of words and appropriate reactions to them
linguistic determinism -
language determines what we see in the world and how we think
objective questions -
fact-based questions asking interviewee for impartial descriptions of events and situations
omission -
leaving out, not saying, part of a word
politically correct (PC) language -
words and phrases that attempt to remove or compensate for any traces of sexism, racism, ageism, heterocentrism or potentially offensive, derogatory meanings
pronunciation -
accenting of syllables in a word
referent -
the thing to which a symbol refers
regulative rules -
rules that guide a response
relationship -
ongoing, interdependent process of interaction between two or more people
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis -
theory that language determines what we see in the world and how we think
showing questions -
questions that invite the respondent to focus on specific actions or activities
signified -
object or phenomena that is represented by a word or symbol
signifier -
word or symbol that we associate with an object or phenomenon
social commitment -
the values and political positions we hold
social constructionism -
theory that language creates our perceptions of reality and the mode of our relational interactions
substitution -
replacing part of a word with an incorrect sound
symbol -
word, sound, action, or gesture that arbitrarily refers to a person, idea, or object
verbal communication -
behavior that exchanges meaning using language as a means; can be written, spoken, or otherwise behaviorally or visually transmitted, as in the case of American Sign Language (ASL)
we-message -
statement that labels and describes the joint behaviors of two or more people
you-message -
statement that labels another person and involves some evaluation of that person’s behavior
affect blend -
blending of two or more affect displays into one facial expression
affect displays -
facial expressions
appearance -
presentation of one’s physical self
artifacts -
objects in an environment that make nonverbal statements about the identity and personality of their owner
chronemics -
intentional and unintentional use of time to communicate
emblem -
nonverbal cue that has meaning for a certain cultural group, substitutes for a word and translates almost directly into a word phrase
expressiveness -
skill of animating verbal and nonverbal communication
eye contact -
looking directly at a person
facial expression -
nonverbal cues from the face showing emotion and mood
feng shui -
Chinese approach to spatial arrangement suggesting that artifacts have unique powers when arranged in a certain way
gestures -
large and small movements of the hands and arms that communicate meaning within a society or culture
haptics -
touch; tactile contact among people
illustrator -
nonverbal cue that complements and accents a verbal message
intimate space -
space that starts at the skin and extends out 18 inches around a person
kinesics -
body communication that focuses on how people communicate through movement and posture, gestures, and the face and eyes