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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Language
a structure sytem of symblols for communicating meaning
symbolic nature of language
symbols are arbitrary representations of frequently ambiguous referents
symbol's characteristics, three
arbitrary- house could have been called a broomstick
ambiguous- words have more than one meaning
abstract- words represent the concept they arent themselves the concept
connotative vs. denotative meaning
emotional reaction vs the dictionary (overall) agreed meaning
phonology
syntax
individual sounds that compose a specific spoken language
rules that govern appropriate combinations of words into sentences
euphemism
form of sugar coating
not exclusionary
ex: cottages vs trailers
sapir whorf hypothesis
we cannot think outside our language
you can tell what the culture values by their language
fact vs. inference
inferences are conclusions about the unknown based on the known.
verbal vs nonverbal communication
verbal communication uses language
non verbal communication gets a message across w/out using language
pseudolistening
appear to be listening but not really
listening myths
its's easy, naturaral , hearing and listening are the same, its's a passive activity
paraphrasing
a concise response to the speaker which states the essence of the other's content in the listener's words
concise and to the point
empathic listening
requires us to take the perspective of the other person to listen for what that person needs
empathy is effectively exhibited through...
Behaviors that fail to exhibit empathy are....
probing
supporting
understanding

evaluating
advising
interpreting
power
ability to influence the attainment of goals sought by yourself or others
assertiveness vs. aggressivness
assertiveness is the ability to communicate the full range of your thoughts and emotions with confidence and skill
aggressiveness puts one's own needs first, you wipe your shoes on other people
assertiveness considers your needs and the needs of others
how is power indicated in communication verbally and non verbally
vebal less powerful: speech is often flooded with selfdoubt, approval seeking, overqualification, hesitancy and personal diminishment.
nonverbal power: clothing, touch (more powerful can touch less powerful), eye contact (boss can appear less interested), space (more powerful have more space)
Conflict
you want something & you see someone else in the way of getting it
can be physical, abstract, ect
5 most common negotiation strategies
collaboration/cooperation
accomodation/yeilding
compromising
avoiding/withdrawing
controlling/power forcing
accommodation/yielding
avoidance/withdrawing
giving up, often used by the less powerful party, positive form, shouldn't be the main way to handle conflict
ignore the conflict, tension builds and becomes worse
controlling/power forcing
compromise
people who thrive on conflict, seek domination, refuse to compromise, escalate to flooding
each party gives up a little but is acceptable to both parties
collaboration/cooperating
and it's 3 steps
work together to find a solution so everyone wins
sometimes impossible but if not its the best
1. confrontation
2. integration
3. smoothing
group norms
rules that indicate what group memebers have to do (obligation), should do (preference), or can not doif they want to accomplish specific goals. norms regualate group behavior
cohesion and how it's developed
the goal of the social dimension
developed through + experiences the group has together
lack of cohesiveness vs having cohesiveness
= lack of participation vs. having good participation
formal vs informal roles
formal: assign a position: titles suchas 'president': do not form naturally they are assigned
Informal: identify functions, not positions: emerge naturally, identified by by observing patterns of communication
three types of roles
task
maintenance
disruptive
task: advance attainment of group goals: extract optimum productivity
maintenance: address social dimension of the group. gain and maintain cohesiveness.
Disruptive: me-oriented. serve individual needs at the expense of group needs and goals
leadership
transactional influence process whose principle purpose is group goal achievement produced by competent communication
democration leadership
Laissez Faire
autocratic
situational
leader bases decision based on feedback
leader tries to let the group run themselves
dictator
leads based on the situation
differences between styles, trait, and situational approaches to leadership
styles: directive and participative
Trait: autocratic/dictator
team vs group
3 distinctions
every team is a group but not every group is a team
1. teams are inherently we-oriented
2. teams normally consist of individuals with more diverse skills
3. teams usually have a stronger group identity. see themselves as an identifiable unit with a common mission.
brainstorming
creative provlem solving method characterized by encouragement of even zany ideas, freedom from initial evaluation of potential solutions and energetic participation of all group members
critical to its success
1. members prepared with initial ideas
2. dont criticize any idea during
3. encourage freewheeling idea generation
4. dont clarify ideas during the idea generation phase
5. piggyback on ideas of others
6. record all ideas for future reference
7. encourage participation from all team members
problem solving process (standard agenda)
identify goal
analyze problem
est. criteria
generate solution
eval. solutions, make final decision
implement decision
benefits of consensus
1. full discussion: improves quality of decision
2. team members are likely to be committed to the final decision and will defend the decision
3. usually produces group satisfaction
two drawbacks of consensus
1. very difficult to achieve: it is time consuming
2. becomes increasingly unlikely as groups grow larger
general purpose
an infinitive phrase that identifies the overall goal of your speech. tells the audience why your're giving the speech
specific purpose
a concise, precise declaration composed of simple, clear language that encompasses both the general purpose and the central idea and indicates what the speaker hopes to accomplish with the speech
central idea
identifies the main concept , point, issue, or conclusion that you want the audience to understand, believe, feel, or reach
considered when choosing a topic
self
audience
occassion
why is audience analysis important?
so that you can meet the expectations of your audience
strategies for managing speech anxiety
prepare and practice
gain proper perspective
adopt a noncompetitive communication orientation
use coping statements
use positive imaging (visualization)
systematic desensitization
components of audience analysis
demographics
values
beliefs
attitudes
critical elements of speech introduction
gain attention
clear purpose statement
establish topic significance for the audience
preview main points
critical elements of speech conclusion
summarize main
refer to the introduction
make a memorable finsh
topical speech organization
shapes information according to types, classifications, or parts of a whole
spatial speech organization
explaining directions to a particular place requires spatial order, a visualization of where things are spatially
causal
cause-effects or effects-causes.
look for why things happen and then discuss the consequences or vice versa
chronological
suggest specific sequence of events. explain a step by step process
problem-solution
explores nature of a problem and proposes a solution or possible solutions for the problem
manuscript
memorized
extemporaneous
impromptu
written speech word for word
manuscript memorized
speech delivered from a prepared outline or notes
little or no obvious preparation
oral vs. written speech styles
1. when we speak we use simpler sentences than when we write
2. oral syle is more personal and less formal than written style.
eye contact
vocal variety
makes it difficult for listeners to ignore you
shifts in mood and does not permit an audience to drift into the hypnotic translike state
verbal fluency
poise
dynamism
frequent verbal fillers may become the only part memorable
too little and too much movement detracts from the speech
supporting materials in speeches
examples: hypothetical and real
statistics:
Testimony
transitions
connect what was said with what will be said. they are bridges between points
types of visual aids
objects
models
graphs
maps
tables
photographs
drawings