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143 Cards in this Set

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A collection of people, but isnt just a random assemblage of independent individuals.
group
Motivation for existing, the end state desired

(group)
goals
member positions and roles

(group)
structure
pattern of message flow

(group)
pattern of communication
informal rulse for interaction
norms
emotional atmosphere
climate
amount of ppl best for a group
5 to 7 people
Advantages in working in a small group
1.Facilitates pooling of resources
2.Increases motivation
3.Makes identification of errors easier
4. Decisions are better received.
5. Provides rewards of working with others.
Disadvantages in working in a small group
1. Encourages laziness
2. Conflicting personal and group goals.
3. Stubbornness leads to deadlock.
4. Riskier decisions are made.
5. Takes longer to reach.
The Seven Characteristics that make an effective group
1. Group goals are clearly understood and cooperatively formulated by the members.
2. All members of the group are encouraged to communicate their ideas and feelings freely.
3. Group members seek to reach a consensus when the decision is improtant.
4. Consideration is given to both the task and maintenance dimensions of the problem-solving effort.
5. Group members do not set about problem solving haphazardly.
6. Motivatoin is high.
7. An effort is made to assess the group's problem-solving style to identify and alleviate factors that impede its effectiveness as well as to identify and foster factors that enhance its effectiveness.
The 5 Communication Networks
1. Chain or line
2. Wheel or star: lowest morale
3. Y pattern: for fastest
4. All Channel
5. Circle: no leader, highest morale
Scholars Benne and Sheats identified three categories of roles, which are...
1. Task-Oriented Roles
2. Maintenance-oriented roles
3. Self-serving roles
Task-Oriented Roles
Help the group realize its goals.
Maintenance-Oriented Roles
Help the group run smoothly
Self-Serving Roles
Prevent the group from working effectively.
The ability to influence others.
Leadership
The members of a group work together to acheive their objectives, and the goals of each person are perceived as compatible with or complementary to those of the others. Goup members readily pool resources and coordinate their efforts to obtain what they consider common aims.
Cooperative Goal Structure
Members don't share resources and coordinate, efforts are not coordinated, and consciously or unconsiously, individuals work to hinder one another's efforts to obtain the goal. Group members who have this beleive thatthey can acheive their goals only if other members fail to do so.
Competitive Goal Structure.
Occurs when a group member perceives or anticipates a threat.
Defensive Behavior
Defensive Climate (6)
1. Evaluation
2. Control
3. Strategy
4. Neutrality
5. Superiority
6. Certainty
Supportive Climate (6)
1. Description
2. Problem orientation
3. Spontaneity
4. Empathy
5. Equality
6. Provisionalism
Defensive vs. Supportive

the anticipation of judgment can hinder the creation of an open communication climate. In contrast to evaluate statements, descriptive statements recount particular observable actions without labeling those behaviors as good or bad, right or wrong.
Evaluation vs. Description
Defensive vs. Supportive

Seeking to control them can arouse defensiveness. If your intent is to control other group members, to get them to do something or change their beliefs, you are likely to evoke resistance. However, when senders communicate that they have not already formulated solutions and will not attempt to force their opinions on us, we feel free to cooperate in solving the problems at hand.
Control vs. Problem orientation
Defensive vs. Supportive

Defensiveness will increase if we feel that another group member is using a strategy or conning us. It is better to be honest and free of deception. Under such conditions, the receiver does not feel a need to question the motivations of the sender, and trust is engendered.
Strategy vs. Spontaneity
Defensive vs. Supportive

We are liked and are seen as worthwhile and valued. We need to feel that others care about us and will take the time to establish a meaningful relationship w/ us. If, instead of communicating empathy, warmth, and concern, a group member communicates neutrality or indifference, we may well see this as worse than rejection. We feel that he or she is not interested in us; we may even conclude that he or she perceives us as a nonperson.
Neutrality vs. empathy.
Defensive vs. Supportive

Feeling of superiority about social position etc. We perceive her or him as willing to develop a shard problem-solving relationship w/ us, as willing to turst us, and as feeling that any difference between us are unimportant.
Superiority vs. equality
Defensive vs. Supportive

We are suspicious of those who believe they have all the answers. An attitude of open mindedness encourages the development of trust.
Certainty vs. Provisionalism
4 recommendations to help ensure that members of your group communicate and function effectively.
1. Encourage an open, supportive environment.
2. Establish a cooperative climate.
3. Be ready to perform needed leadership and membership roles.
4. Encourage continual improvement.
Members try to maintain harmony by foreging critical decision making.
group think
Compromise, bargaining and middle-ground positions are accepted so that no one wins-accomodation & adjustmaent lead to "workable" rather than best solutions.
5/5 Conflict Grid Style

"Find a middle ground"

Lose-Lose
Avoider; maintain neutrality at all costs and view conflict as useless. You remove yourself from conflict situations.
1/1 Conflict Style

Lose & Walk Away
Disagreements are smoothed over or ignored so that surface harmony is maintained in a state of peaceful co existence

Have to be liked by all, afraid to make others angry, non troublemaker
1/9 Conflict gridstyle

Give in & lose
Conflict is suppressed through authority-obedience approach. power struggles are fought out, decided by the highest common boss or through third-party arbitration
Personal goals before others
Need to win and dominate
9/1 conflict grid style

Win-lose
Valid problem solving takes place with varying points of view objectively evaluated against facts. Emotions, reservations, & doubts are examined & worked through.
Seek to satisfy own goals as well as others.
9/9 conflict grid style

Win-Win
6 suggestions to turn conflict situations into problem-solving situations
1) Recognize That conflicts can be settled rationally
2) Define the conflict
3)Check your perceptions
4) Suggest possible solutions
5) Assess alternative solutions & choose the one that seems best.
6) Try out your solution & evaluate it.
A system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of a society use to cope w/ one another and their world
Culture
A group whose beliefs or behaviors distinguish itfrom the larger culture that it is a spart of & w/ which it shares numerous similarities inferior to dominant culture es: dom~ upperclass white men co~ Hispanics, adolescents etc.
Co-culture
The exchange of info between individuals who are unalike culturally
Intercultural Communication
Specialized languages used by co-cultures to facilitate effective communication & to distinguish group members from nonmembers.
co-languages
4 examples of co-language
Argot
Cant
Jargon
Slang
The specialized language of disreputable underground co-cultures

Gangs, prisoners etc. Live on the edge of society and have own words for prison, lawyers, drugs...
Argot
The specialized language of nonprofessional, usually noncriminal, groups.

Taxi drivers, truckers etc
Cant
The technical language of a particular trade, profession, or group.

dentists, lawyers.....projects experience, authority and expertise.
Jargon
Language derived from cant and argot that consists of terms widely known to the dominant culture but not acceptable for use in formal writing and speaking
Slang
The belief that your own group or culture is superior to other groups or cultures.
EX: Thinking everyone should speak English
Ethnocentrism
A generarlization about some group of people that oversimplifies their culture.
EX: All Asians are smart
Stereotyping

People more likely to stereotype are individuals and groups with whome have little contact with the ones they are stereotyping etc.
Cultures that value individual freedom, choice, uniqueness, and independence.
"I" before "We"
Cultures like the US, Australia, Great Britian, Canada, and the Netherlands
Individualistic Cultures.
Cultures that value the group over the individual.
Higher value for family and cooperation.
Cultures include: Venezuela, Pakistan, Peru, Taiwan, and Thailand.
Collectivist Cultures
Cultures that tolerate ambiguity, uncertainty, and diversity.
~Already have mixture of ethnic groups, religions, and race.
~U.S, Great Britian, Denmark, Sweden, Singapore, Hong Kong, Ireland, and India.
Uncertainty-Accepting Cultures
Cultures that have difficulty with ambiguity, uncertainty, and diversity.
~More likely to have many rules; and want to know exactly how to behave, and more likely to reject immigrants etc. who act & look different
~Japan, France, Spain, Greece, Portugal, Belgium, Peru, Chile, & Argentina
Uncertainty-Rejecting Culture
A culture in which information and cultural rules are implied and already known to the participants.
EX: An Arab woman knows to walk a few paces behind her husband.
PPl are less aggressive and more polite
~Middle East, Africa, & Latin America
Implicit-Rule Culture
A culture in which information and cultural rules are explicit, procedures are explained, and expectations are discussed.
~Expect communicators to be straightforward; people have to cope with embarrassment or insult.
~ Northern and Western Europe, & US
Explicit-Rule Culture
The three main characteristics of different cultures
1)Individualistic vs. Collectivist Cultures
2) Uncertainty-Accepting vs. Uncertainty-Rejecting Cultures
3) Implicit-Rule vs. Explicit-Rule Cultures
Strategies for Improving Intercultural Communication
1) Conduct a personal self-assessment. (How do your own attitudes toward dif. cultures influence ur comm w/ them.)
2)Practice supportive communication behaviors
3) Develop sensitivity toward diversity.
4)Avoid stereotypes
5)Avoid ethnocentrism
6)Develop code sensitivity.
7)Seek shared codes (tolerating ambiguity)
8) Use and encourage descriptive feedback.
9) Open communication channels.
The ability to use the verbal and nonverbal language appropriate to the cultural or co-cultural norms of the individual with whom you are communicating.
Code sensitivity
Being open-minded about differences.
Tolerating Ambiguity
The physiological act of receiving sound.
hearing
The process of receiving and interpreting aural stimuli
~Using your brain to help understand sounds you hear.
Listening
Interference in the communication process from external and internal sources.
~Physical distractions
Noise
The three kinds of Listening
Active, Empathic, and Critical
Involved listening with purpose.
~Listens w/ more or less his or her total self.
~Opp of passive (which is studying while watching tv etc.)
~Also characterized by verbal and nonverbal feedback
Active Listening
The listener's verbal and nonverbal responses to the speaker and the speakers' message
Feedback
Verbal and nonverbal responses intended to affirm the speaker and the speakers' message.
~ facial expressions, attentive looks, smiles etc.
Postive Feedback
Verbal and nonverbal responses intended to disconfirm the speaker and the speakers' message.
~Frowning, turning head away.
Negative Feedback
A type of active listening in which you listen with a purpose and attempt to understand the other person.
Empathic Listening
The ability to perceive another person's world view as if it were your own.
Empathy
The state of being fully engaged in the moment
Apart of Empathic Listening
Mindfulness
Listening that challenges the speaker's message by evaluating its accuracy, meaningfulness, and utility. Learning how to be skeptical~questioning and analyzing what you are told.
Critical Listening
Analyzing and judging the accuracy of messages.
Critical Thinking

You can not listen critically w/o also thinking critically.
The three abilities related to critical thinking
1) Distinguish between observations and interferences
2) Be able to categorize evidence as emotional, logical, or personal
3) Understand the various types of arguments.
Descriptions based on phenomena that can be sensed-seen, heard, smelled or felt.
Observations
your description of what you sensed.
~More credible
First-person observation
Your (or someone else's) report of what another person observed.
Second-person account
Generalization from or about information you have received through your senses.
Inferences
Interference:Made before, during or after observation
Observations can only occur while something is being viewed.
Interference goes beyond that which is seen and observations do not
Interpretation is the goal of interference
Reporting is goal of observations.
Whereas observations are more likely to be aggred-upon by observers, inferences vary widely in the agreement they elicit from individuals.
A generarlization about some group of people that oversimplifies their culture.
EX: All Asians are smart
Stereotyping

People more likely to stereotype are individuals and groups with whome have little contact with the ones they are stereotyping etc.
Cultures that value individual freedom, choice, uniqueness, and independence.
"I" before "We"
Cultures like the US, Australia, Great Britian, Canada, and the Netherlands
Individualistic Cultures.
Cultures that value the group over the individual.
Higher value for family and cooperation.
Cultures include: Venezuela, Pakistan, Peru, Taiwan, and Thailand.
Collectivist Cultures
Cultures that tolerate ambiguity, uncertainty, and diversity.
~Already have mixture of ethnic groups, religions, and race.
~U.S, Great Britian, Denmark, Sweden, Singapore, Hong Kong, Ireland, and India.
Uncertainty-Accepting Cultures
Cultures that have difficulty with ambiguity, uncertainty, and diversity.
~More likely to have many rules; and want to know exactly how to behave, and more likely to reject immigrants etc. who act & look different
~Japan, France, Spain, Greece, Portugal, Belgium, Peru, Chile, & Argentina
Uncertainty-Rejecting Culture
A culture in which information and cultural rules are implied and already known to the participants.
EX: An Arab woman knows to walk a few paces behind her husband.
PPl are less aggressive and more polite
~Middle East, Africa, & Latin America
Implicit-Rule Culture
A culture in which information and cultural rules are explicit, procedures are explained, and expectations are discussed.
~Expect communicators to be straightforward; people have to cope with embarrassment or insult.
~ Northern and Western Europe, & US
Explicit-Rule Culture
The three main characteristics of different cultures
1)Individualistic vs. Collectivist Cultures
2) Uncertainty-Accepting vs. Uncertainty-Rejecting Cultures
3) Implicit-Rule vs. Explicit-Rule Cultures
Strategies for Improving Intercultural Communication
1) Conduct a personal self-assessment. (How do your own attitudes toward dif. cultures influence ur comm w/ them.)
2)Practice supportive communication behaviors
3) Develop sensitivity toward diversity.
4)Avoid stereotypes
5)Avoid ethnocentrism
6)Develop code sensitivity.
7)Seek shared codes (tolerating ambiguity)
8) Use and encourage descriptive feedback.
9) Open communication channels.
The ability to use the verbal and nonverbal language appropriate to the cultural or co-cultural norms of the individual with whom you are communicating.
Code sensitivity
Being open-minded about differences.
Tolerating Ambiguity
The physiological act of receiving sound.
hearing
The process of receiving and interpreting aural stimuli
~Using your brain to help understand sounds you hear.
Listtening
Interference in the communication process from external and internal sources.
~Physical distractions
Noise
The three kinds of Listening
Active, Empathic, and Critical
Involved listening with a purpose.
Opp: listening to the radio while studying (passive listening)
Active Listening

Also characterized by verbal and nonverbal feedback
The listener's verbal and nonverbal responses to the speaker and the speaker's message.
Feedback
Verbal and nonverbal responses intended to affirm the pseaker and the speaker's message
EX: leaning forward, smiling etc.
Positive Feedback
Verbal or nonverbal responses intend to disconirm the pseaker and the speaker's message.
EX: Reading the newspaper, turning head (not interested etc.)
Negative Feedback
A type of active listening in which you listen with a purpose and attempt to understand the other person.
Empathic Listening
The ability to perceive another person's world view as if it were your own.
Empathy
A part of empathic listening: the state of being fully engaged in the moment.
Mindfulness
Listening that challenges the speaker's message by evaluating its accuracy, meaningfulness, and utility. Learning how to be skeptical, which requires questioning and analyzing what you are told.
Critical Listening
Analyzing and judging the accurace of messages
Critical Thinking

You can not listen critically w/o also thinking critically.
Three Abilities Related to Critical Thinking
1) Distiguish between observations and inferences
2) Be able to categorize evidence as emotional, slocial, or personal.
3) Understand the various types of arguments.
Descriptions based on phenomena that can be sensed- seen, heard, smelled or felt
~Can only occur only while something is being veiwd.
~goal is reporting
~More likely to be agreed-upon by observers.
Observations
Generalizations from or about information you have received through your senses.
~Can be made before, during of after an observation.
~Go beyond that which is seen
~Goal is interpretation
~Vary widely in the agreement they elicit from individuals
Inferences
Your description of what you sensed.
~More Credible
First-Person Observation
Your (or someone else's) report of what another person observed.
Second-Person Observation
A proposition and its justification
Argument
As part of an argument, a statement of what you believe.
Proposition
As part of an argument, all the evidence you have gathered that supports the proposition.
Justification
Evidence based on feelings or emotions.
EX: decleration from roommate: "I'm hungry. Let's order a pizza."
Emotional Proof or "Pathos"
Evidence based on reasoning.
EX: advice from a neighbor: "Yes, you should landscape with eastern white pine because they grow fast and tall, will grow anywhere, and are resistant to disease."
Logical Proof or "Logos"
Evidence based on the authority and knowledge of a credible source.
EX: Suggestion from an interior decorator: "You should use imported English polished cotton for your drapes."
Personal Proof or "Ethos"
12 suggestions to improve Verbal Skills while listening.
1) Invite additional comments. "Go on," "What else?" etc.
2) Ask questions
3) Identify areas of agreement or common experience.
4) Vary verbal responses.
5)Provide clear verbal responses.
6)Use descriptive, nonevaluative responses.
7) Provide affirmative and affirming statements.
8) Avoid complete silence.
9) Allow the other person the opportunity of a complete hearing.
10) Restate the content of the speaker's message.
11) Paraphrase the content of the speaker's message.
12) Paraphrase the intent of the speaker's message.
10 suggestions to Improve Nonverbal Skills while listening
1) Demonstrate bodily responsiveness.
2) Lean forward
3)Use direct body orientation
4)Use rlaxed, but alert posture.
5) Establish an open body position.
6) Use positive, responsive facial expressions.
7) Establish direct eye contact.
8) Sit or stand close to the speaker.
9) Use vocal responsiveness.
10) Provide supportive utterances.
The mental give-and-take between speaker and listener during a persuasive speech.
Mental dialogue with the audience.
The portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.
Target Audience.
A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion
EX: Will the economy be better or worst next year?
Question of Fact
Organization for Questions of Fact
Topically
A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
Question of Value
Method of organization for Question of Value
topically
A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken
Question of Policy
Method of Organiztion for Question of Policy
Effective organization
A persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of the policy
Speech to gain passive agreement
A persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy
Speech to gain immediate action
5 steps of Monroe's Motivated Sequence
1) Attention
2) Need
3) Satisfaction
4) Visualization
5) Action
The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. The two major factors influnceing a speaker's credibility are competence and character.
Credibility
One of the two factors for influencing a speaker's credibility.
~How an audience regards a speaker's intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject.
Competence
One of the two factors for influencing a speaker's credibility.
~How an audience regards a speaker's sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.
Character
The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.
Initial Credibility
The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
Derived Credibility
The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.
Terminal Credibility
3 ways in enhancing Credibility
1) Explain your Competence
2)Establish Common Ground with Your Audience.
3) Deliver Your Speeches Fluently, Expressively, and with Conviction.
Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.
Evidence
4 Tips for using Evidence Effectively
1)Use Specific Evidence
2)Use Novel Evidence
3)Use Evidence from Credible Sources
4)Make Clear the Point of Your Evidence.
Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.
Reasoning from Specific Instances.
Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
Reasoning from Principle
Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
Causal Reasoning.
Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the firest case is also true for the second case.
Analogical Reasoning.
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
Red Herring
A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.
Ad Hominem
A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
Either-or
A fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
Bandwagon
A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
Slippery slope
3 Methods in Generating Emotional Appeal
1) Use Emotional Language
2) Develop Vivid Examples
3) Speak with Sincerity and Conviction
Emotional appeals role in persuasive speech
Intented to make listeners feel sad, angry, guilty, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, reverent, or the like.