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161 Cards in this Set

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Entertainment research
traditional effects -- media does X to people
usually negative -- negative aspects
uses and gratifications
active audience -- facilitates study of entertainment
conceptually empowers the audience member
someone knows what they want, sorts through their choices until they find something that gratifies their needs
what is entertainment?
an amusement or diversion inteded to hold the attention of an audience or its participants -- sort of a useless definition
multitasking uses of entertainment (Studying while listening to music)
intentional fallacy
intentional fallacy
what the creator is intending/function goal and what audience get from it could be very different
entertained vs. being informed --> news - often times you take pleasure in other people's misfortune
watch the news to hear sad stories, like sad movie
various forms of media
literature, music, movies, TV shows, video games
all can be delivered through various technologies
technology
media delivered through various forms may impact reception, use and function
audience role
actively selects from perceived range of content options to seek gratification/fulfillment of needs
effects can be conceptualized as
individual or societal
intended or unintended
manifests or latent
primitive humans and entertainment
communication, fire, social hierarchies, farming innovations provided for "leisure" time for rituals and comforts
- there wasn't much time for entertainment until communities evolved, tools were developed, etc
entertainment was feasting, storytelling, rituals (weddings, harvest ,etc)
egyptians and entertainment 2000BC
aristocracy and also middle class -- use leisure time for non-ritual entertainment

higher on the social hierarchy = engage in things that are not just rituals -- more like entertainment for entertainments sake
greek culture and entertainment 500-300BC
Drama, "intellectual arts" games flourished; dichotomy between "privileged" and "common"
reflectin on leisure

intellectual approach -- what function should entertainment serve?
Roman Empire 1c-4thcAD
democratization of entertainment as a result of wealth
emphasis on spectacle ( something to witness that is huge, scary, etc. Something to marvel at -- Reality TV, Jerry Springer)

repressed lower classes senses to revolt -- food and entertainment to keep them happy (breads and circuses)
--- used as a colonial tool to suppress the revolutionary instinct of colonies
used to pacify colonized groups
what did christianity do to entertainment?
regulated and sanitized leisure and entertainment
what happened to entertainment in the 1600's?
social and domestic entertainment pursuits flourished, partly as a result of technology and leisure availability

-leisure become more widely available
-domestic entertainment pursuits -- engage in entertainment in their homes rather than going out (parties, cards, dances)
printing press changed nature of literature
technology in the last century and entertainment
vastly increased the range of entertainment options and the role it plays in our lives
ex: multitasking, disintermediation, niche marketing, social faciliation
entertainment industry goals
maximize profit
issue of greed
maximizing profit
market place sphere
public interest sphere
market place sphere
discuss things in terms of what the public likes, what will make money and how the industry follow that, seek to maximize profits
public interest sphere
what the public needs
public may know what it wants, not always what it needs --
media works well when it knows what the public wants, but it somehow needs to be controlled to give the public what it needs

so many options, the public can avoid things they dont want
greed
is "sufficient" profit a meaningful concept?
is "greed" a meaningful concept?
--- stockholders would be angry is companies stopped making money after reaching its goals
consequences of greed
too focused on profit seeking might suffer in some regard in other virtuous aspects of their lives, but there is no parallel for corporations

cant intentionally stop making money in companies
leisure is way up
8 less work hours a week since the 1960's - particularly for low socioeconomic status
individuals spend
~$1,000 a year on media
trend is away from product ownership and towards access/subscription -- netflix rather than buying dvds
reading trends?
significantly up after a steady decline
Kindle and eBooks popular
--simplifies the process and the novelty of the technology may increase people's desire to use it
TV trends
viewing up
around 34 hours a week == multitasking compensates for any displacement due to new tech.
-- playing on computer while watching TV (portability of laptops ) increase overlap
individual content creators
may have different economic goals than producer/marketer/distributor
who pays for content?
user
advertisers
users paying for content
films, magazines, music, games
though some ads...product placement
advertisers paying for content
most TV
interested in advertising to people who have money and are willing to spend it
youthiness trend -- 18 - 35 or younger is the new target (was 18 - 49)
advertisers paying for content and brand loyalty
develop brand loyalty into teenagers -- make a 16 year old a X user and you'll have them for life
viral marketing
word of mouth, contacting a community and getting them to be a "cheerleader" for your product

social networking is useful
cool hunters
cool hunters
go to an environment and study how people dress, act, talk, values of the group, tries to blend in with the group

crafts messages that are tailored to that market and advertises that way on channels that the market would view
product placement
increasingly important as viewers are more willing/able to skip ads
advertisers know people are willing/able to skips ads (TiVo)
- pay shows less to advertise during their show
-show has to find a new way to make that money back
--user fees
user fees
channels start charging more for cable companies to carry their signal, pass that to the users
demassification trend
tech advances have facilitated niche marketing
advertisers looking at smaller audiences
older industry profit seeking strategy (before demassification)
create content that will attract the largest amount/type of viewers
- different socioeconomic status, genders, nationalities, etc.
- difficult, find something that all will minimally tolerate

"the least objectable entertainment model" -- don't have to create great content, as long as it is minimally better than something else
newer industry profit seeking strategy -- DEMASSIFICATION
the cable model
every cable channel produces niche marketing
- channels tailor their shows to a specific demographic

ex: ESPN, MTV
smaller audiences, but have many channels -- profit with a smaller audience, but with unique tailored sectors
broadcast/cable ration
9:1 to 4:6 in my lifetime
cable has significantly cut into the broadcast market
so much choice, people demand what suits their interests and tastes
entertainment industry involves both...
content creators and distributors
- some players do both
- large corporation families do both
advertisers love knowing who the audience is
channels deliberately target a small audience, but they know who their audience is
- the more you know about the lifestyle, economics, etc. about your audience the more easily you can advertise to them
new technologies and disintermediaiton
enhance "on demand" potential and disintermediation (idea that an intermediary is between you and the content -- content ha no filter through this before reaching audience)

leads to demassify -- take your own path
streaming -- disconnect from someone else's program agenda
cultural critics fear of demassification
fragmentation -- glue hold culture together, culture has a commonality thru the TV. Live in worlds that don't interact

avoidance of "social value" content -- you can skip news, so you do skip news.
entertainment is a risky business
90% of TV shows last one year
90% of magazines fail within a year
90% of CDs do not break even
effect of entertainment industry being a risky business
sets up an economic situation that affects the content
failing all the time? need a huge hit every once in a while
-- the 10% you make profits on have be HUGE profits
corporate rock
corporate rock
focused on things that will only be a big profit
reluctance by record labels to have artists that will fill arenas
punk revolution changed this
hit to release ration
industry economics rewards small number of mega-hits as opposed to large number of smaller hits
(traditional models)
regulations affect content
finsyn policy in broadcasting
designed to promote "indies" and reduce vertical integration..promoted economic demand for hits
vertical integration
when raw materials, manager/manufacturer, and distributor are all part of the same "family"

content producer or creator (music artist, or TV company) --> "middleman manager" (network, Hollywood studio, record company) --> distributor (broadcaster movie theater chain, record store) all part of the same company/family ---- BAD, finsyn created to stop this
goal to create independent content creators
regulation served a content creation paradigm that created a need for big hits
people want to make money, can't on syndicated episodes
syndication
refers to content (usually cheap...reruns, game shows) sold directly to distributors (broadcasters) without going through network parent

100 episodes is unofficial threshold for syndication
entertainment industry is profit seeking
don't always create products that are for the best public interest -- regulations
- content regulation
- economic relationships (media ownership -- how big a media corporation can get_
risk of the entertainment sector is managed by
maximizing investment capital
integrate the production process
nationalize/globalize
- above 3 are features facilitated by concentration --- 5 huge media conglomerates that control majority of media -- it necessary to have these companies that can manage the media risk
rationalize the audience
integrate the production process
synergy -- one part of your empire assists another part of the empire - ex: Disney promotes Disney movies on ESPN; Vertical integration
FINSYN
gone now
was aimed at forcing outsourcing
industry had gotten use to outsourcing, now indie movies are made and then a major company may buy them

good balance -- outsource and then bring it inside the family
nationalize/globalize -- risk management
think outside of just your local market
market nationally and globally
secondary markets exist globally - global markets affect the content -- not all films are exportable (violent films translate well)
rationalize the audience - risk management
market research, but also trying to condition the market to expect and desire predictable forms of content

may have implications for diversity/richness
- Ghostbusters secretary example
market research, Tom Petty and the radio
some feel it dehumanizes the radio experience when compared to idiosyncratic opinion leadership of intuitive djs
- opinion leading DJ's created accidental exposure -- you listen to music you never thought you would listen to

DJ's used to play what they thought was good music-not what marketers told them to play

80's era deregulation made radio business profitable so that corporations started to run it like a business
people's opinion of market research and the radio
better for society to experience accidental exposure to content they wouldnt have heard otherwise
"stupid record executives would make WAY more money by having a charismatic DJ rather than doing the market research"
market research
shows how they can maximize their profits
secondary markets
foreign, cable/satellite, merchandise, licensing, etc.
new media technologies -- various personalization trends
privatization
demassification
portability
privatization
create own private media world
- walkmen, iPods
- initially thought of as a horrible thing, isolated from society

- Sony added another headphone jack to address this issue
demassification
cultivate a media experience that is specific to you
--able to focus on one type of content
portability
entertainment historically has been used to mark an event (celebration/ritual), special occasion
more recently entertainment is something you just do periodically during your day, a diversion
now you can take entertainment with you can be entertained anytime, anywhere

approximately 25% of under 25's watch most of their TV online
disintermediation
whenever users get control entertainment landscape, some elitists will lament populist tastes
populists
egalitarian, even they suck at choosing good candidates, they have that right to vote! let them vote
elitists
society needs people to direct their taste == thats a bad form of content (petty is an elitist)
scrobbling
ex: Pandora, notes what you listen to, suggests other similar options -- they are the intermediary -- based on our market research, these are the bands/artists you will ike
intellectual property issues (piracy, fair use)
SOPA
Safe Harbor
Fair Use
SOPA
congress is trying to regulate piracy on the internet, any sites that use any copyrighted info will direct people away from sites on a list of known sites that use copyrighted information
Safe Harbor
youtube does not have to be policeman -- if someone who's info is up there tells you to take it down, then they will take it down

SOPA will take this away - not possible for youtube to police the millions of videos
Fair Use
copyrighted info used in to create something else - create own intellectual property
ex: Course readers
reused entertainment materials are getting closer to being protected
User generated content
some users create something new with other content
digitization
has resulted in lower barrier to production/distribution and storage
-CGI has made it relatively cheap to produce content
-distribution and storage is the bigger part of it
The "long tail" and entertainment industry economics
where storage and distribution costs are low, it is economically viable to sell relatively unpopular products

EX: Borders -- unlikely to purchase certain books so they don't put them on their shelves. Traditionally, things will be published, and things will be stored if they think they will sell. NOW, a publisher might say, we can publish a few copies, because it doesn't cost as much in store -- publish on demand, if someone can order it, then we will make it -- digitally store things

borders did not profit from this!
digitization happening has mad it cheaper to create lower popularity items, and easy to store them - increases diversity of items
supply chain/entertainment industry
content creation
content packaging
content distribution
user interface
end user
content creation
hollywood studies, independent producers, user generated content
content packaging
broadcast networks, cable networks, Google, yahoo!, AOL, Myspace, apple...
Content distribution
broadcast TV stations, Cable MSO's, DBS, RBOC's, the internet
User interface
TV, PC, Mobile devices (people that make the hardware)
end user
might also be a generator now as well
viewers/consumers
new technologies not displacing TV, but....
DVR usage is making traditional ad models less profitable

look for more product placement, and alternative sponsorship

also more hyper-alertness
alternative sponsorship
(new tech, not displacing tv..)
a whole show, or season might be sponsored by one company

ex: "we now bring you Hewlitt Packards, Glee"
hyper-alertness
skipping ads, closely watching when show starts again -- then have to rewind a few seconds to see beginning of show
you see clip of the last ad from the commercial break
--pay close attention to the ad at the end
people report entertainment means:
relaxation
change/diversion --> escapism
stimulation -- intellectually/physiologically
fun -- lightness of spirit
joy -- psychologically
Bosshart and Macconi views on entertainment
four sub-categories of pleasure
-senses
-ego-emotions
- personal wit/knowledge
- socio-emotions (empathy

can be prioritized according to individual
Bosshart and Macconi

Senses (pleasures)
eating food that you like
physical pleasure
Bosshart and Macconi

ego-emotions (moods) (PLEASures)
internal emotional states
bosshart and macconi

personal wit/knowledge (pleasures)
more intellectual aspects of things
enjoy things that make us think more
bosshart and macconi

socio-emotions (empathy)

pleasures
pleasure of being socially connected
entertainment functions in people's lives...according to Bosshart and Macconi
compensations
gratifications
self-realization
Bosshart and Macconi

compensation
if you lack something, you supplement the deficiency by the type of content you use
gratification

Bosshart and Macconi
needs from time to time, entertainment satisfies those needs
self-realization

Bosshart and Macconi
aspirations to become something as a human, on some track (intentionally/unintentionally) and entertainment is a growth experience

aspiring to something greater
Vorderer updates entertainment scholarship
regards entertainment as play
lowish intellectual demand
essentially for human development/coping

illusory nature of entertainment/information dichotomies -- helps people cope

learning function dependent on entertainment
Vorderers entertainment as play
intrinsically motivated (do something because you enjoy it), highly attractive (Extrinsic - do something so you get something out of it)

change in perceived reality

frequently repeated

reliable, you can go back to it
vorderer's entertainment and low-is intellectual demand
children tend to play games that are slightly below their intellectual level
ability to reliably win
Vorderer and human development/coping
play helps youth (animals/humans) learn things, there is a function to it
Vorderer and learning function
entertainment enhances the learning
more children are entertained the more thy will learn from it
humor correlates with recollection of information
psychology of media entertainment
mood management theory
mood adjustment approach
affective disposition theory

Zillman, Knobloch, Vorderer
mood management theory
people select media to regulate mood, improve feeling state

Knobloch --> Digital Jukebox experiment
Knobloch Digital Jukebox experiment
subjects randomly assigned to bad mood chose joyful/upbeat songs; no mood differences at post-test

people who were in a bad mood were significantly more likely to pick songs that were happy to get them out of the mood

criticisms: Why do people seek anxiety, hostility, or depressing provoking content? -- meta-emotions (emotions about emotions)
mood adjustment approach
people may aim to regulate mood to prepare them for some individual of social task

Knobloch-Westerwick & Alter (2006) 2x2x2 experiment
- some are intentionally angered by research assistant
-some are told they will get a chance to take a survey about your experience
- DV: choice of news articles browsed -- read the ones you are interested in (positive/negative news articles)

results: men expecting retaliation sought negative news; females expecting retaliation sought positive news; positive/negative choice patterns sign predicted actual retaliation behavior

women are social socialized to be empathetic, compassionate, sympathetic

not just putting yourself in a good mood, ability to sustain a bad mood

the group that did not know thy would have a chance to retaliate did not experience a difference
affective disposition theory
enjoyment = liked characters do well, disliked characters punished (e.g. victim sympathy predicts enjoyment of crime entertainment )
how do we know who to like in stories? (affective disposition theory)
we are cognitive misers and use narrative schemas as guides
cognitive misers
we have some finite amount of brainpower, we can't spend that on everything.

We have rules that guide us to focus on things/not focus on things (Schemas) to save our mental energy

shortcuts, guidelines, etc that make it so our brains do no have to process everything to save our cognitive resources
event schema
how things happen in a place
ex: restaurant -- we know host/ess will seat you, then a waiter will come, may be differnet than who gets you water, then food, desert offered, get the bill, pay, leave

helps save brainpower
narrative schema
how stories will go -- you know who the bad guy will be, etc
do we like moral characters? or do we define as moral if we like them?
strive for cognitive balance

often we like morally ambiguous characters
-- Ben from Lost

people like characters for all sorts of reasons, but then when the character does bad stuff we have restore the cognitive balance
PLEASURES:

Vorderer article and enjoyment
user and media pre-reqs, effects, manifestations, and motives

key elements:
parasocial interaction
escapism
achievement/competition -- related to flow
aesthetic appeal
excitation transfer
technology role
catharsis
parasocial interaction
ability to have relationships with characters
escapism
user brings (related to what others call "transportation" and "presence")
stepping our of your world
achievement/competition as a prereq
refers mostly to video games; related to flow
flow
if you have skill in medium use, but the difficulty of the medium is low you will be bored

low skill and high difficulty of medium you will be anxious

we seek out media that is equivalent to skill level
excitation transfer (Effect)
residual excitement that you accidentally apply to other contexts

ex: super pumped up from a sports game, then someone hits your car in the parking lot, you may be more upset then normally because of the previous emotion from the game
catharsis
not purge, bur pruification
comically wrong theory then applied to media violence

video game violence -- people who are already highly violent/agressive people, high violence in vieo games maybe, possibly, could help them reduce their real world aggression and violence

now its more of a purge of emotion
aristotle's view on catharsis
purification of the audience's feeling of pity and fear so that in real life we understand better whether we should feel them
user prerequisites for enjoyment
suspension, empathy, parasocial interaction/relationship (w/fictional characters), presence, interest
motives for enjoyment (user brings these)
escapism, mood management, achievement, competition
media prerequisites for enjoyment
technology/design/aesthetics, content
effects of enjoyment
excitation transfer, catharsis, learning
transportation
cognitive, emotional, and imaginativ involvement in narrative world

can be through a book -- thrust into narrative, engaged with the characters

doesn't have to be an imaginary world, could be a real place that you've never been to, or could be a place that doesn't exist

also can distract from "self-discrepancy" rumination
self-discrepancy rumination
often think/ponder on how we fall short in some way
measures of transportation are correlated with?
measures of enjoyment
transportation relates to
enjoyment from traveling to the dark side vicariously and safely

development of empathic skills, perspective-taking, transformation thru identity play

parasocial interaction
enjoyment from traveling to the dark side vicariously and safely
evolutionary psychology -- behaviors that have evolved with humanity that occurred in order for us to survive -- ex: Kin recognition

transportation allows us to experience behaviors that we normally would not do (dangerous/illegal/bad, etc.)
development of empathic skills, perspective-taking, transformation thru identity play
some people are more empathic than others, if you are not empathic it will be harder to experience the transportive feeling

identity play --> people who are able to transport will be better at imagining other lives "what would it be like if I were an astronaut"
parasocial interaction and transportation
experience some sort of interpersonal connection with characters in the story
when something bad happens to a character you like/connect with you too will experience anxiety/negative feeling
media prerequisites for enjoyment
technology/design/aesthetics, content
effects of enjoyment
excitation transfer, catharsis, learning
transportation
cognitive, emotional, and imaginativ involvement in narrative world

can be through a book -- thrust into narrative, engaged with the characters

doesn't have to be an imaginary world, could be a real place that you've never been to, or could be a place that doesn't exist

also can distract from "self-discrepancy" rumination
self-discrepancy rumination
often think/ponder on how we fall short in some way
measures of transportation are correlated with?
measures of enjoyment
transportation relates to
enjoyment from traveling to the dark side vicariously and safely

development of empathic skills, perspective-taking, transformation thru identity play

parasocial interaction
enjoyment from traveling to the dark side vicariously and safely
evolutionary psychology -- behaviors that have evolved with humanity that occurred in order for us to survive -- ex: Kin recognition

transportation allows us to experience behaviors that we normally would not do (dangerous/illegal/bad, etc.)
development of empathic skills, perspective-taking, transformation thru identity play
some people are more empathic than others, if you are not empathic it will be harder to experience the transportive feeling

identity play --> people who are able to transport will be better at imagining other lives "what would it be like if I were an astronaut"
parasocial interaction and transportation
experience some sort of interpersonal connection with characters in the story
when something bad happens to a character you like/connect with you too will experience anxiety/negative feeling
transportation is enhanced by
detail
stylistic techniques which defamiliarize the world (pleasure thru novelty); probably because it invites cognitive engagement
New technologies which allow interactivity and presence
detail and transportation
ex: Lord of the Rings --the characters all have rich back stories, the world keeps going beyond what you are shown
stylistic techniques which defamiliarize the world and transportation
pleasure thru novelty
probably b/c it invites the cognitive engagement )though also feels a little ironic)
- make the experience a little more difficult
-aesthetically challenge you

ex: Momento -- filmed from the end of the beginning -- told in reverse order -- makes you cognitively engage
ex: Inception
new technologies which allow interactivity and presence --- transportation
"awareness of medium disappears"; for example, HD TV images enhance presence

presence is more of a physical element, visuals and audios
variety of main effects for HD/size on realism, immersion, excitement, etc.
Bracken (2005) - HDTV -- sharper the image, people felt it was more real. were interested/excited

Lombard et al (2000) - screen size
larger the screen relationship of "participant" with terrain (someone running, felt like real world textures), excitement of scene, danger of activity, all indices
two kinds of involvement with media
distant/analytical - "Detached"

higher emotional involvement..."reader entering the world of the text"
distant/analytical - detached
might be engaged by the media, find it interesting and stimulating, but you are stepping outside of it and looking at it like art
higher emotional involvement
reader enters the world
flow
easy to understand regarding gaming
theory originated in analysis of creative absorption (includes diminshed sense of self-consciousness, time; heightened concentration, etc.)

chart from text -- difficulty of medium compared to skill in medium that you are using --> not challenging with high skills equals boredom, high difficulty with low skill levels equals anxiety
media messages may be less accessible due to...
purposeful violation of convention -- post-modernism -- film makers do what you do not expect

lack of craftsman competence -- bad writers, bad actors -- hard to like when the skill isn't there

use of out-of-date formal characteristics -- ex: Silent Movie -- people can learn how to appreciate the older characteristics, but challenging without the skills
post-modernism
take different things and put them together in a juxtaposing fashion, in order to get consumer to think about the form -- lure the consumer into thinking about the art form
video games and flow
provide variable and self-adjusting levels of difficulty -- success indicators

lack of novelty produces predicatability which may be experienced as boredom

transportation may be necessary to induce massive effort expenditure -- adventure games may be thought of as incredibly laborious w/out engaging story/characters; fans assert difficulty should be organic
organic in video games
task that seems to be realistic, come from the real world rather than the game creator just trying to make your life more difficult
connectedness and advertising
notes that mere viewership numbers may miss the point, particularly from ad advertising viewpoint -- WANT AN AUDIENCE BUT WANT PEOPLE WHO ARE LOYAL/CARE ABOUT THE SHOW - PASSION - CONNECTEDNESS

all current models are about building relationships with customers now
three kinds of connectedness
vertical
horizontal
verizontal
vertical
viewer and program (fanom, self-id)

follow the actors, have merchandise from the show, define self in terms that show you are a supporter of the show
horizontal
viewer and other viewers (lubricant to interpersonal communication)
- part of group
- social lubricant
verizontal
viewer and character (parasocial)
- connectedness to the show, but particularly to a character on the show
correlates of connectedness
imaginal ability

optimal stimulation

females favor engagment (characters act on own)
males typified more by detachment (notes why/how creator controls character)

males: willingness to step outside (ex: Lost)
imaginal ability
ability to elaborate/expand on fictional content
optimal stimulation level (OSL)
some people like a lot of change/stimulation/novelty, while other find comfort in familiarity, don't seek novelty/change

low OSL
high OSL
low OSL
seek relaxation, comfort ~ perhaps more loyal, patient with genre, show, character

show is like a friend thy can rely on, tis just there
high OSL
may be more fickle, seeks stim of novelty

eager to move onto the next thing, usually when a show begins to be repetitive
Marketing implications of connectedness
highly connected morel ikely to pay attention, or exhibit loyalty, to brands, product placement

probably promotes fandom cult, merchandising, or viral 'word of mouth' support

fandom cult -- entertainment creators like this... loyal following