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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Theory
A body of statements that present a clear, rounded, and systematic view of a subject.
Non-Identity
"A is not A" The things on map are not really the actual size of things
Entropy
Degree of Uncertainty
Multi-ordinal
A word can have a number of meanings to different people
Mystification
A phenomenon inwhich average people bond w/ note figures
Channel
Means through which the message is transmitted and recieved
Paralanguage
Vocalistics; using voice such as rate, pitch, or volume to communicate sarcasm
Self-Reflexiveness
We abstract from abstractions-- infinitely
Attitude
Is a predisposition to behave in a positive or negative way toward an object.
Artifacts
Objects that affect communication Ex. clothes, jewelry, a car
Inartistic Proofs
Aspects of the situation or qualities of the speacker not directly speaker controled.
Cognitive Dissonance
Dissonance is a relationship in which one element would not be expected to follow from the other.
Non-Allness
No statement says all there is about an event
Hapics
also called touch, an important element in interpersonal communication
Peripheral Routing
occurs when non-critical thinking occurs and the listener is influenced by elements extraneous to the argument itself.
Uncertainty Reduction
People seek information to reduce uncertainty; they may also create uncertainty by the information they transmit
Noise
Anything that interfers with the communication process
Indexing
"Recognizing student A is not student B" we are all different
Abstraction
Process of leaving out details when perceiving or labeling an object
Cybernetics
Control or self-regulation via communication with an emphasis on feedback
Proxemics
The process of how space affects the communication process
Information
Reduces uncertainty(involves data, process, channel, outcomes/uses)
Kinesics
The study of how body language affects the communication process
Taxonomy
A list of related topics
List and define three types of Data in theory construction
Nominal-Lists

Ordinal- Rank Order

Interval- Weight of Importance
Define a system
A system is a set of points that come together and form a whole in the environment
According to Classical Rhetorical Theory (Aristotle), artistic proofs are based on 3 elements. Name and defineeach.
Pathos-appeals to Emotions

Ethos- creates creates trustworthiness w/ the audience

Logos- (Logic)evidence the author provides
List and Characterize the parts of a system.
Wholeness- Whole is greater then the sum of its parts.

Interdependence- each part depends on the other part

Equilibrium- trys to achiece balance

Hierarchy- lines of power

Change/Adaptability- changes in order to survive

Exchange w/ environment- changes input to output
Elements in the Communication process
Source: Where it came form

Reciever: Person that assigns meaning to the message

Encoding: The formulation and transmission of the message

Decoding: meaning of the message is created in the mind of the reciever

Channel: means through which the message is transmitted and recieved

Feedback: responce by the reciever to the message

Noise: anything that interferes with the communication process

Context: The situation which the communication takes place
According to Ogden-Richards'triangle of meaning, the 3 elements interrelate to establish meaning
Thought, Object/Referent, Symbol/ C.A.T
According to Semantic Space theory, signs have meaning in 3-dimensional space, name them.
Evaluation, Potency, and Activity
Distinguish between the three major perspectives in theory construction
Laws Perspective: All A's are B's under conditions 1,2,and 3

System Perspective: A>B>C>D>E>A

Rules Perspecive: A & B cause action C
Clarify the Parts of Kenneth Burkes "Dramatistic Pentad.
1.Act: event that is done

2.Agent: Actor doing the event

3.Agency: the channel

4.Scene: When and Where

5.Purpose: Why events occurs
List the parts of Monroes Motivates Sequence
1. Attention
2. Need
3. Satisfaction
4. Visualization
5. Action
Levels of a system.
Closed System- no exchange with the environment

1.static structure (universe)
2.Simple Dynamic (clock)
3.Cybernetic control (thermostat)

Open Systems- exchange with the environment

4.self maintenance (the cell)
5.Biological (plants)
6.Biological (animals)
7.Human (individual)
8.Social (human organization)
9.Transcendental (Metaphysical)
What are the 5 general types of nonverbal behaviors that are based on origin, coding, and usage.
1.Emblems: have a verbal translation, such as "peace"

2.Illustrators: accent or emphasize

3.Adaptors: facilitate release of bodily tension

4.Regulators: used to coordinate interaction

5.Affect displays: display of emotions
According to Katz, what four functions do attitudes serve
1.Adaptive: our attitudes help us adaptto our world

2.Knowledge-economy: The "smarter: we are the more choices we have as we manage our lives

3.Expression of self-image: We have attitudes about the way we look to ourselfs and others

4.Ego-defensive: have attitudes about how to protect ourselfs.
Be able to define; vales, beliefs, and attitudes
Attitudes are predisposition that can be negative or positive towards an object

Beliefs are our perceptions

Values are important beliefs

all three are interelated and can be affected by persauassion.
According to Burke, people communicate in large part because of guilt- which creates division. This guilt derives from what three principles?
Principles of the Negative: Moralize

Principle of Perfection: Unattainable Goals

Principles of Hierarchy:
social pyramids
Distinguish between central and peripheral routing.
Central Routing: critical thinking occurs when the reciever consiously and thoughtfully processes information

Peripheal routing: occurs when non-critical thinking occurs and the listener is influenced by elements extraneous to the argument itself
Know the types of Necessity in theory building.
Nomic Necessity: casual relationships

Logical Necessity: consistant systems of relationships

Practical Necessity: amount of force to act
What is the idea behind McGuires Inoculation Theory
the premise in this theory is that forewarning is a forearming of an audience agaisnt a persuasive message.
Know the parts of Information Theory
Information: reduces uncertainty

Entropy: Chaos, randomness

Piece: unit of information

Bit: unit of information that reduces alternatives by half

Turbulence: degree of stability/instability in the environment

Information Load: quantity of information combined with relative difficulty in transmission

Uncertainty reduction: People seek information to reduce uncertainty
Social Judgement Theory
Indivual judgement of things and people are highlt situational and depend on ones initial orientation toward the world.
What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
Unlike deductive reasoning, Inductive reasoning is not designed to produce mathematical certainty
From theories of verbal coding, state 5 generalizations about signs.
Messages are signs and groups of signs shaped through human thought processes

Coding is the process of relating signs to their referents.

Semantics: How signs relate to things -----> meaning

Pragmatics: How signs effect human behavior

Syntactics: Signs relating to other signs
According to Ellul, list the 4 kinda of propaganda
Political: try to change the actions of the public

Sociological: integrate individuals

Agitation: self-seeking messages

Integration: messages to stabilize
What are the 3 stages of "self" as defined by Meads Symbolic Interaction Theory?
Preparatory Stage

Play Stage

Game Stage
Distinguish between influenceability and persuasibility.
Persuasibility is part of a larger condition influenceabilty
Distinguish between the two broad definitions of Propaganda.
Doob: Viewed propaganda as an attempt to affect the personalities and to control behavior.

Ellul saw propaganda as a universal phenomenon, necessary and essential
Explain how at least 3 types of environmental factors affect nonverbal communication.
Temperature: to hot or to cold could affect what you do for non-verbal communication.

Amount of space: to far away they wont be able to see what youre doing

Comfort: If you are not comfortable with the person or in general they will be able to tell.
State hte Sapir-Whorf linguistic relativity principles and give two examples.
Linguistic relativity states that distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language alone, and that "there is no limit to the structural diversity of languages

Hopi Indians view of time

Japanese forms of greeting