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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
communication
A systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings.
content level of meaning
One of two levels of meaning; the literal information in a message.
feedback
Verbal or NV response to a message. The concept of feedback appeared first in interactive models of communication.
meaning
The significance we attribute to a phenomenon; what it signifies to us.
noise
Anything that interferes with the intended meaning of communication; includes sounds (e.g., traffic) as well as psychological interferences (e.g., preoccupation).
process
An ongoing continuity, the beginning and end of which is difficult to identify; for example, communication.
relationship level of meaning
One of two levels of meaning in communication; expresses the relationship between communicators.
symbol
An arbitrary, ambiguous, and abstract representation of a phenomenon. Symbols are the basis of language, much nonverbal behavior, and human thought.
system
A group of interrelated elements that affect one another. Communication is systemic.
critical research methods
Data analysis that aims to identify, critique, or change communication practices that oppress, marginalize, or otherwise harm people.
ethics
The branch of philosophy that deals with the goodness or rightness of particular actions. Ethical issues infuse all areas of the communication field.
interpersonal communication
Communication between people, usually in close relationships such as friendship and romance.
intrapersonal communication
Communication with ourselves, or self-talk.
organizational culture
Understandings about identity and codes of thought and action shared by members of an organization.
qualtitative research methods
Interpretive techniques, including textual analysis and ethnography, used to understand the character of experience, particularly how people perceive and make sense of communication.
quantitative research methods
Techniques such as descriptive statistics, surveys, and experiments, used to gather quantifiable data.
triangulation
Studying phenomena from multiple points of view by relying on multiple sources of data, theories, researchers, and/or methodological approaches.
cognitive complexity
An explanation of why things happen and why people act as they do; not necessarily correct interpretations of others and their motives.
cognitive schemata
The number of mental constructs an individual uses, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to create perceptions.
constructivism
Mental structures people use to organize and interpret experience. Four schemata have been identified: prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes, and scripts.
culture
The beliefs, understandings, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a group of people.
empathy
The ability to feel with another person, to feel what he or she feels in a situation.
expectancy violation theory
A theory claiming that when our expectations are violated, we become more cognitively alert as we struggle to understand and cope with unexpected behaviors.
individualism
A predominant Western value that regards each person as unique and important and to be recognized for her or his individual activities.
inference
An interpretation that goes beyond the facts known.
interpretation
The subjective process of organizing and making sense of perceptions.
judgment
A belief or opinion based on observations, feelings, assumptions, or other nonfactual phenomena.
mind reading
The assumption that we understand what another person thinks or how another person perceives something.
monitoring
The observation and regulation of one’s own communication.
perception
An active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and activities.
Personal constructs
Mental yarsticks that allow us to measure people & situations along bipolar dimensions of judgement
stereotypes
generalizations about people & situations
script
a guide to action
interpretation
the subjective process of creating explanations for what we observe & experience
attributions
explanations of why things happen and why people act as they do
self-serving bias
we tend to construct attributions that serve our personal interests
+ visualization
a technique used to enhance success in a variety of situations by teaching people to think of themselves positively
expectancy violation theory
when our expectations are violated
cognitive complexity
the # of constructs used, how abstract they are, and how elaborate they interact to shape perceptions
empathy
to feel WITH another person
culture
beliefs, values, understandings, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that many ppl share
social community
a group of ppl that are both part of an overall society AND distinct from the overall society
mind reading
we understand what another person thinks or feels
inference
a deduction that goes beyond what you know or assume to be a fact
judgement
a belief or opinion that is based on observations, feelings, assumptions, or other phenomena that are NOT facts
monitoring
calling behaviors or other phenomena to our attention so that we can observe & regulate them
symbols
representations of ppl, events, & all that happens in & around us
NVC
symbols that aren't words, such as facial expressions, dress, & tone of voice
VC
words as symbols
arbitrary
verbal symbols are not closely attracted to what they represent
ambiguous
NOT clear-cut, precise meanings
abstract
not concrete or tangible phenomena
brute facts
objective, concrete
institutional facts
the meanings of brute facts based on human interpretation
communication rules
shared understandings among members of a certain group about what comm. means & what behaviors are appropiate in various situations
regulative rules
reg. interaction by specifying when, how, where, & with whom to communicate about certain things
totalizing
responding to a person as if one label totally reps that person
loaded language
words that slant perceptions and because of that, meanings
reappropiation
when a group of ppl reclaims terms others use to degrade its members and treats those terms as positive self-descriptions
the "I"
the spontaneous, creative SELF
the "ME"
the part of you that is VERY aware of social conventions; censors certain bad impulses
static evaluation
an assesment that suggests something is unchanging
indexing
a technique to remind us that our evals apply only to specific times & circumstances
NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR
a MAJOR dimension of human communication~ includes all aspects of comm. other than words, also HOW we utter words
kinesics
refers to body position/motions, including those of the face
haptics
NVC involving physical touch
physical appearance
the first obvious qualities we notice, such as sex, color, & size
artifacts
Personal objects we use to announce our identities and to personalize our environments
proxemics
refers to space & how we use it
environmental factors
elements of settings that affect how we feel, think, & act
chronemics
refers to how we perceive & use time to define indentities & interaction
ParaLanguage
comm. that is vocal but not actual words; it includes sounds such as murmurs, gasps, vocal qualities, rhythms, pitch, and inflection
listening
a complex process that consists of being mindful, hearing, selecting, & organizing info, interpreting comm, responding & remembering
hearing
physiological activity that occurs when sound waves hit functioning eardrums
mindfulness
focusing on what is happening in the moment
interpretation
putting together all that we have selected & organized to make sense of communication
responding
expressing interest, asking questions, and otherwise showing that we are attentive
remembering
the final aspect of the listening process
message overload
occurs when receive more messages than we can effectively process
message complexity
exsists when a message we are trying to understand is very complex
environmental distractions
occurences in the comm. setting that interfere with effective listening
preoccupation
this is what happens when we are absorbed in our thoughts & concerns and when we can't focus on what someone else is saying
pseudolistening
pretending to listen
monopolization
hogging the stage by continually focusing on comm. on ourselves instead of the person who is talking
selective listening
focusing on only particular parts of comm.
defensive listening
perceiving a personal attack criticism, or hostile undertone in comm. when none is intended
minimal encouragers
repsponses that gently invite another person to elaborate
examples: "tell me more" and "really?" and "i see", etc.
paraphrasing
a second way to gain insight into others' perspectives by reflecting our interpretations of others' comm. back to them